Socl_3601_-_Exam_1 - Socl 3601 Exam 1 Three Major...

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Socl 3601 – Exam 1 Three Major Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology: 1) Structural-Functionalism = look at how different parts of society function together to maintain the whole (macro-level approach to the study of society, they study the institutions of society, the classes of people) 2) Conflict Theory = About conflict and competition in society a. Over power, control of resources b. Domination of less powerful groups by those in power, c. Social change comes about when the less powerful overpower the more powerful (replace with a new system of oppression) d. (Macro-level…) 3) Symbolic Interaction = (George H. Mead) Humans have the ability to use significant symbols (symbols with shared meanings for everyone in society) a. We use these symbols to form societies through interaction b. (Take a micro-level approach, nothing gets done in society unless it gets done by people, focus on people in small groups) - Psyc developed as a discipline in the early 1800’s - But we soon figured out that you need to know more than what is going on in peoples head in order to understand behavior (so lets develop another field) - Behaviorism = stimuli and response o When we behave in approved behavior, we get rewarded o When we behave in unapproved behavior, we get punished o Over the course of time, acceptable social habits become part of “human nature” o Popular pool of thought around the turn of the century, it faded and then revised in the start of the 20 th century o B.F. Skinner – great reformer in this field (trained pigeons to show that behavior can be curved) o Weakness = there are a few weaknesses to behaviorism Alternatives (choices) Cognitive abilities (the ability to think things out – advanced) We use our cognitive abilities through social interactions There is no room for it all in behaviorism alone o For sociologists, this falls way short of an adequate explanation of what people do and why they do it - Rational Choice Theory and Exchange Theory = o W can weigh the expected benefits of any particular behavior and we can way that against the costs and the risks of engaging in the behavior If the benefits outweigh the costs, we will engage in the behavior (more than likely)
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Some rewards are more important than others (we all have different dislikes and preferences) in certain circumstances - Social Learning Theory = Talks about three different ways in which we learn o We learn through experiences o Internalizing what we are explicitly taught by other people o Vicarious Learning = we can watch other people and see what they do and learn from it What works for someone else may or may not work for us Kids learn this as they grow, adults continue throughout life - Dramaturgy – (Ervin Goffman) o When we are in the presence of other people, we present a character to other people (just like an actor on stage presents a character to an audience) o We need our audience to buy into the character that we present; we need
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Socl_3601_-_Exam_1 - Socl 3601 Exam 1 Three Major...

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