SOCL 2501 - Exam 2

SOCL 2501 - Exam 2 - Sociology 2501 Exam II Chapter 12...

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Sociology 2501 Exam II Chapter 12 Crime and the Criminal Justice System Explanations of Crime a. Biological Explanations view crime as arising from people’s physical constitution or genetic make-up. b. Psychological Explanations view crime as being linked to personality disorders or maladjustments, often developing during childhood. Crime and Crime Data a. A crime is an act that violates a criminal code enacted by an officially constituted political authority. b. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) publishes an annual document called the Uniform Crime Report (UCR). c. The UCR summarizes the crime statistics collected by law enforcement agencies each month. Problems with Official Statistics a. Statistics reflect only crimes that are reported to or witnessed by law enforcement b. Legal definitions of some offenses vary between jurisdictions c. Crime trends reflect shifts in population Crime Rate in the U.S. a. According to the FBI… - the crime and delinquency rates in the U.S. have been rising for a number of decades; and - the rise appears to have leveled off in the 1980s and declined somewhat in the 1990s. b. Increases may reflect a likelihood to report crime rather than an increase in the incidence of crime Other Contend the Decline in US Crime Occurred because: a. 1990s was a time of general economic prosperity b. Deomographic changes such as drop in numbers of young people c. Crack epidemic has declined in many areas d. Boom in incarceration e. Greater efforts to reduce crime at local levels f. Concerted crackdown on guns Types of Crime (Major Types) a. Violent Crime: actions involving force or the threat of force against others (e.g., murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) *Index Crime* b. Property Crime: taking property from another without force, threat of force, or the destruction of property (e.g., burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson) *Index Crime*
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c. Organized Crime: a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit Examples drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling, loan-sharking, money laundering, and large-scale theft such as truck hijackings - Syndicated crime networks thrive because there is great demand for illegal goods and services d. Occupational (White-Collar) Crime: illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity Examples employee theft, embezzlement, soliciting bribes Corporate Crime: illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation with its support. Examples unlawful labor practices, price fixing, and deceptive advertising - Direct losses from corporate crime are immense in comparison to losses from street property crime e. Political Crime: illegal acts intended to influence the political system - The abuse of authority by those in power - Actions by governments that are illegal and immoral f. Victimless Crime: g. Juvenile Delinquency: involves a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by a young person - Status offenses:
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course SOCL 2501 taught by Professor Simpson during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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SOCL 2501 - Exam 2 - Sociology 2501 Exam II Chapter 12...

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