lecture4 - 6 Lecture 4, January 23, 2008 C. Orbital filling...

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6 Lecture 4, January 23, 2008 C. Orbital filling and ordering 1. Aufbau principle a. Orbitals closest to the nucleus fill first, because they are the lowest in energy. b. Use radial distribution plots to determine which orbital is actually closest to nucleus. As n increases, the ordering is not simply due to n and l, but can vary. The ordering can also be determined simply by looking at the periodic table (s block = two columns on left; d block = next ten columns; p block = last six columns; an element located in the p block, for example, is currently filling a p orbital with electrons). c. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 6 etc. 2. Pauli principle a. No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers… the fourth quantum number, s, refers to the electron's "spin". This refers to the direction of the electric field generated by the electron, since it has a charge; it can be proven experimentally in the atomic line spectra, which in fact show doublets rather than single lines. b.
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lecture4 - 6 Lecture 4, January 23, 2008 C. Orbital filling...

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