lecture5 - 8 Lecture 5, January 25, 2008 III. Why are...

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8 Lecture 5, January 25, 2008 III. Why are Valence Electrons Important? A. Screening 1. Core electrons are closer to the nucleus, so more energy is required to separate them from the atom (since the nucleus has a positive charge, and energy is required to separate positive and negative charges). 2. Valence electrons don't experience as much positive charge, because the core electrons "block" some of it—they sit between the valence electrons and the nucleus, so they prevent the valence electrons from experiencing some of it. However, this blocking is not perfect, because the radial wavefunction (R 2 ) does not go to zero until r (implying that the core electrons do not spend 100% of their time between the nucleus and the valence electrons). B. Slater's rules 1. These are a set of rules used to calculate how much positive charge is experienced by each electron in an atom. It makes approximations about how effective the screening of each orbital is, based primarily on the quantum numbers n and l. 2.
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lecture5 - 8 Lecture 5, January 25, 2008 III. Why are...

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