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lecture2 - 2 Lecture 2 SECTION 1 THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE...

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2 Lecture 2, January 16, 2008 SECTION 1: THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS I. What causes variations in atomic reactivity? A. Electrons are not randomly arranged, but can only have specific distances from the nucleus. 1. The energy of an electron is related to its distance from the nucleus: potential energy = kq 1 q 2 d (q 1 and q 2 are the charges being separated, d is the distance between them, and k is an aggregation of constants). 2. Line spectra of hot gases indicates that electrons are moving between defined energies; since energy is inversely related to distance (from the equation above), this means that they must have defined distances from the nucleus. 3. Bohr: theorized that electrons occupy discrete orbits around the nucleus, with distance proportional to a constant, n , that could have values of integers starting at 1 (i.e., n = 1, 2, 3, …). This is the primary quantum number. Note that the distance of the electrons from the nucleus in each orbit could be calculated: E = hc " d = kq 1 q 2 E B. Electrons have a very small mass and move very fast, so they are best treated as waves.
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