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Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies1.The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism*Martin Luther protested Catholicism/stated the Bible to be the only source of God’s word — 1517, beginning the Reformation*Calvinism dominated New England Puritans/other settlers*Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) — “predestination” – God determinedthe elect& the doomed i)only the elect (visible saints) should be members of the church*conversion— Calvinists were revealed by God their heavenly destiny *Calvinism spread via Puritans, economically depressed/purification of English-Christianity*Separatists— small group of devout Puritans – total breaking from Anglican Church*King James Iwas head of church/state – threatened Separatists because if his subjects could defy him as spiritual leader, could defy him politically — 1603-16252.The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth*Separatists fled to Dutch Holland, but still longed for an English refuge — 1608*Mayflowerdeparted/arrived at New England — 1612i)Captain Myles Standish – Indian fighter/negotiator*settled outside Virginia Company’s boundaries in Plymouth Bay*Mayflower Compact — simple agreement for a crude gov’t & majority-win decisions, but would be a promising step in self-governing*only 44 of 102 survived the 1stwinter of 1620-1621*next autumn (1621) — 1stThanksgiving & bountiful harvests, w/ new economic ways: fish, fur, & lumber*William Bradford, the Pilgrims’ cultured leader, feared independent, non-Puritans*Plymouth merged w/ Massachusetts Bay Colony — 16913.The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth*moderate Puritans pushed for reforms in England, but stopped when Charles I dismissed Parliament (supportive) — 1629*1629 — non-Separatist Puritans secured Massachusetts Bay Company charter*“Great Migration” – 70,000 refugees left Englandi)Massachusetts Bay Colonybegan (20,000) — 1630ii)most other Puritans (48,000) settled in West Indies (Barbados)*John Winthrop — governor/deputy governor of MA Bay Colony for 19 yrs. — colony prospered w/ fur trading, fishing, & shipbuilding*first colonists shared a sense of purpose —a covenant w/ God – agreed to build a model holy society, “a city upon a hill”4.Building the Bay Colony *“freemen” — churched adult men (2/5) could vote in provincial elections*Governor Winthrop disliked democracy – only “visible saints” (freemen) elected governor & General Court*John Cotton – devout Puritan/among influence in MA “Bible Commonwealth”
*congregation limited power of clergy men — limited separation of church & state*