The American Pagent 12 edition - Ch 3 Settling the Northern Colonies (notes) - Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1 The Protestant Reformation

The American Pagent 12 edition - Ch 3 Settling the Northern Colonies (notes)

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Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies 1. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism * Martin Luther protested Catholicism/stated the Bible to be the only source of God’s word — 1517, beginning the Reformation * Calvinism dominated New England Puritans/other settlers * Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) — “predestination” – God determined the elect & the doomed i) only the elect (visible saints) should be members of the church * conversion — Calvinists were revealed by God their heavenly destiny * Calvinism spread via Puritans, economically depressed/purification of English- Christianity * Separatists — small group of devout Puritans – total breaking from Anglican Church * King James I was head of church/state – threatened Separatists because if his subjects could defy him as spiritual leader, could defy him politically — 1603-1625 2. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth * Separatists fled to Dutch Holland, but still longed for an English refuge — 1608 * Mayflower departed/arrived at New England — 1612 i) Captain Myles Standish – Indian fighter/negotiator * settled outside Virginia Company’s boundaries in Plymouth Bay * Mayflower Compact — simple agreement for a crude gov’t & majority-win decisions, but would be a promising step in self-governing * only 44 of 102 survived the 1 st winter of 1620-1621 * next autumn (1621) — 1 st Thanksgiving & bountiful harvests, w/ new economic ways: fish, fur, & lumber * William Bradford, the Pilgrims’ cultured leader, feared independent, non-Puritans * Plymouth merged w/ Massachusetts Bay Colony — 1691 3. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth * moderate Puritans pushed for reforms in England, but stopped when Charles I dismissed Parliament (supportive) — 1629 * 1629 — non-Separatist Puritans secured Massachusetts Bay Company charter * “Great Migration ” – 70,000 refugees left England i) Massachusetts Bay Colony began (20,000) — 1630 ii) most other Puritans (48,000) settled in West Indies (Barbados) * John Winthrop — governor/deputy governor of MA Bay Colony for 19 yrs. — colony prospered w/ fur trading, fishing, & shipbuilding * first colonists shared a sense of purpose —a covenant w/ God – agreed to build a model holy society, “a city upon a hill” 4. Building the Bay Colony * “freemen” — churched adult men (2/5) could vote in provincial elections * Governor Winthrop disliked democracy – only “visible saints” (freemen) elected governor & General Court * John Cotton – devout Puritan/among influence in MA “Bible Commonwealth”
* congregation limited power of clergy men — limited separation of church & state *

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