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bio Exam III Outcomes - Jason Wang Spring 2006 Bio Exam III...

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Jason Wang Spring 2006 Bio Exam III Outcomes 1. (p.176) - p=dominant gene (A) - q=recessive gene (a) -p^2=frequency of homozygous dominant genotype - q^2=frequency of recessive genotype -2pq=frequency of heterozygous genotype p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 100% p + q = 1 2. (p.177-179) -mutation – change in DNA -gene flow – occurs in small populations o Genetic drift – chance events in small populations; reduces variability w/in population; incr variability b/w populations o Non-random mating - adaptation – adapting to the environment - natural selection – adapt in struggle for survival (b/c limited resources) and survival of the fittest (best adapted produce more offspring) - Darwin’s Theory o After variation (mutation, recombination, inversions, deletions, duplications, and new genes from outside population), natural selection, and survival of the fittest, there is an origin of new species (populations are so different, they can’t interbreed) - adaptive mechanisms o mimicry – ex. when nonpoisonous species looks like a poisonous one o warning coloration – bright coloration that signals a species is poisonous - parasitism – ideal parasite doesn’t kill its host to survive so it can produce more offspring Random genetic changes Natural selection Evolution What is it? The raw material acted upon by natural selection Difference in reproductive success b/w genetically different individuals of a population Genetic change in a population from generation to generation Who does it affect? Only individuals Individuals and populations Only populations How does it work? Produces an organism with an individual genetic makeup that: 1. is unique 2. may be inherited by the organism’s offspring Produces an organism with genetic differences that: 1. are advantageous under the existing environmental conditions 2. make it more likely to survive and reproduce, passing these advantages on to offspring Natural selection affects generations and produces a population that is better adapted to existing environmental conditions 1
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Jason Wang Spring 2006 3. (p 180) -homologous structures – we have the same embryologic origin (types of bones) - vestigial organs – still exist but have no function (ex. appendix, tailbone) - embryology – same as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny - fossils – anything preserved in rocks; shows changes over time like skeletons and imprints - ontogeny – recapitulates phylogeny; embryologic development repeats evolutionary development 4. (p. 178) Pre-mating isolating mechanisms: - geographic – species on 2 dif islands; mountain separates the species - temporal – timing; seasonal; reach sexual maturity at different times of the year -
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