final bio outcomesgood!!

final bio outcomesgood!! - BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1. Apply the...

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Unformatted text preview: BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1. Apply the scientific methods to experimentation; identify independent, dependent and controlled variables; apply the SOAP method to analysis of patient problems. Scientific Method:- observation- hypothesis: statement based on observation- experiments: test to see if hypothesis is correct- conclusions: if experiment verifies hypothesis Types of variables:- Independent : variable we expect will change- Dependent : outcome, what changes, depends on independent variable- Controlled variables : things to prevent from changing the outcome Ex: Blood pressure drug : Independent - new drug Dependent blood pressure Controlled things that affect blood pressure Diabetes Independent new drug Dependent sugar Controlled old drug *best studies are done by blinded experiments * SOAP S ubjective Patient complaining about, not measurable O bjective measurable data A ssessment whats going on P lan recommendation 2. Define covalent (non-polar and polar), ionic and hydrogen bonds and distinguish among them. Ionic bonds metal and nonmetals, between positive and negative ions, within molecules Covalent bonds electrons are shared Polar covalent (carbons always form a covalent bond), electrons are pulled more closely to one atom than the other, which makes that atom more negative strong electrons N,O,P Non-polar covalent electrons are in middle of bond, equally shared, therefore no polarity. Hydrogen bonds bonds between H and an electronegative atom, between molecules which makes them easier to break. 3. Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Hydrophobic hates water and is non polar Hydrophilic loves water and is polar 1 4. (11) Explain why water is a good solvent for living systems. Water causes dissociation ionization; its good at breaking down ionic bonded, polar molecules bc water itself is polar; it causes dissociation of ionically bonded molecules 5. (12) Explain how buffers maintain constant pH; describe how pH changes affect molecular bonding. Buffers maintain a CONSTANT pH by removing/adding protons. They do not maintain a neutral pH. Since they either add or remove protons, the pH affects hydrogen bonds. 6. Define monomer and polymer. Discuss how monomers are bonded to one another to form biological molecules (dehydration synthesis). Describe the process of hydrolysis. Monomers individual units Polymers many individual units bonded to one another Dehydration Synthesis removal of water, water is a product, builds molecules Hydrolysis breaks up molecules, water is a reactant 2 7. Identify functional groups amines, carboxylic acids, hydrophobic chains. Predict whether a functional group will cause a molecule to be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Define lipophilic....
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final bio outcomesgood!! - BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1. Apply the...

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