final bio outcomesgood!! - BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1 Apply the...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
BIO FINAL OUTCOMES 1. Apply the scientific methods to experimentation; identify independent, dependent and controlled variables; apply the SOAP method to analysis of patient problems. Scientific Method: - observation - hypothesis: statement based on observation - experiments: test to see if hypothesis is correct - conclusions: if experiment verifies hypothesis Types of variables: - Independent : variable we expect will change - Dependent : outcome, what changes, depends on independent variable - Controlled variables : things to prevent from changing the outcome Ex: Blood pressure drug : Independent - new drug Dependent – blood pressure Controlled – things that affect blood pressure Diabetes Independent – new drug Dependent – sugar Controlled – old drug *best studies are done by blinded experiments * SOAP S ubjective – Patient complaining about, not measurable O bjective – measurable data A ssessment – what’s going on P lan – recommendation 2. Define covalent (non-polar and polar), ionic and hydrogen bonds and distinguish among them. Ionic bonds – metal and nonmetals, between positive and negative ions, within molecules Covalent bonds – electrons are shared Polar covalent (carbons always form a covalent bond), electrons are pulled more closely to one atom than the other, which makes that atom more negative – strong electrons – N,O,P Non-polar covalent – electrons are in middle of bond, equally shared, therefore no polarity. Hydrogen bonds – bonds between H and an electronegative atom, between molecules which makes them easier to break. 3. Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Hydrophobic – hates water and is non polar Hydrophilic – loves water and is polar 1
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4. (11) Explain why water is a good solvent for living systems. Water causes dissociation ionization; it’s good at breaking down ionic bonded, polar molecules bc water itself is polar; it causes dissociation of ionically bonded molecules 5. (12) Explain how buffers maintain constant pH; describe how pH changes affect molecular bonding. Buffers maintain a CONSTANT pH by removing/adding protons. They do not maintain a neutral pH. Since they either add or remove protons, the pH affects hydrogen bonds. 6. Define monomer and polymer. Discuss how monomers are bonded to one another to form biological molecules (dehydration synthesis). Describe the process of hydrolysis. Monomers – individual units Polymers – many individual units bonded to one another Dehydration Synthesis – removal of water, water is a product, builds molecules Hydrolysis – breaks up molecules, water is a reactant 2
Image of page 2
7. Identify functional groups – amines, carboxylic acids, hydrophobic chains. Predict whether a functional group will cause a molecule to be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Define lipophilic.
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern