Benchmarks for Lecture Exam 1

Benchmarks for Lecture Exam 1 - Josh Boudeman Benchmarks...

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Josh Boudeman Benchmarks for Lecture Exam 1 1. Define and apply all terminology and word roots presented in lecture. 2. What is meant by the structural organization of living things? Name and define each unit within the structural organization of living things. Give 4 ex. of each. Which is more/least complex? Organism (most complex)—all organ systems & gross anatomy; must have characteristics of living things. Ex. Human, Snake, Tree, Bacteria Organ system—group of organs working together to perform a certain function. Ex. Respiratory, Digestive, Nervous, Lymph Organ—aggregate of tissues working together to perform a task. Ex. Heart, Liver, Skin, Skull Tissue—group of cells working as one part—epithelial, muscle, connective, nervous Cellular—smallest living units made of molecules. Ex. muscle fiber, neuron, osteocyte, r.b. cell Chemical—simplest form, ex. N, H 2 , CHO, or NO 3. Define and locate regions of the body and principal local areas comprising each region. Page 7 of lecture handout 4. Identify the various body cavities and the organs found in each. Dorsal Cranial—brain Vertebral—spinal cord Ventral Thoracic Pleural—lungs Mediastinum—Pericardium(heart), trachea, thymus gland, esophagus Abdominopelvic Abdominal—Stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, intestines Pelvic—urinary bladder, colon, rectum, uterus, ovaries 5. Define membrane. What is the general function of the membranes in the body? Compare and contrast mucous and serous. Give 6 examples of each. Membrane —covers and protects other structures in the body Mucous membranes —line cavities that communicate with the exterior; epithelial surfaces kept moist at all times (lubricated by mucus or other glandular secretions); lined by simple epithelium that function in absorption and secretion. Ex. digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary tracts. Serous membranes —line subdivisions of ventral body cavity; consists of mesothelium supported by loose c.t.; pleural—lungs; peritoneum—organs below the diaphragm; pericardium—heart Ex. visceral/parietal + pleura/pericardium/peritoneum Compare/contrast —both cover and protect tissues in the body; mucous is ciliated to move objects around, secretes and absorbs, and has columnar epithelium; serous are squamous cells 6. Serous membranes can be either visceral or parietal. Compare/contrast the two. Describe, in specific terminology, the location of each serous membrane
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Josh Boudeman Visceral pericardium—adheres to the surface of the heart Parietal pericardium—makes up the wall of the cavity that holds the heart Visceral pleura—adheres to the surface of the lungs Parietal pleura—adheres to the wall of the thoracic cavity where the lungs are located
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Benchmarks for Lecture Exam 1 - Josh Boudeman Benchmarks...

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