Notes for first midterm - 6th & 5th Centuries BC Xerxes:...

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6th& 5thCenturies BCXerxes: King of Persia. Promoted religious tolerance despite his own practice ofZoroastrianism. This practice has been established during the reign of King Cyrus-Earlier Persian King.Cyrus Cylinder: Cyrus (Grandfather of Xerxes) wrote a set of rules on a clay cylinder.Leonidas: King of Sparta.Movie 300 shows Xerxes as a bisexual type of guy when Spartans were actually morelike that. Film also shows Persia as being tyrants when Sparta was more of a tyrantempire.Athens, Greece. Practicing A type of “democracy.” Property owing Greek Athenian maleshad a political voice.At the same time that Athens are forming their first democracy, India has 12 kingdoms orstates that have a very similar system to Athens.In Athens, Greece, Socrates is teaching democracy.In india, Siddartha Guatama (Buddha) is teaching Buddhism.In India, the guru Mahavira is also teaching Jainism.In China, Confucius is teaching his philosophy.5thCentury, Roman Empire Falls (Middle Ages). Much of West Europe would break upinto smaller kingdoms (Medieval Period).Republics, democracies and limited monarchies in 5th century BCThis is seen all throughout Asia. Absolute monarchies are ruled by someone whodictates the life of his citizens. Limited monarchies are similar to today'sconstitutional monarchies and republics are what had already existed in Athens.Athens was established as a democracy during Socrates' time. Some of themonarchies in India were limited or constitutional monarchies, which predatedAthens.Animism/spirit worship: ancient, human practice.Hinduism/Brahmanism: 2000BCJudaism: 1500BC (mono)Zoroastrianism: 1500BC (mono)Historiography – “The writing of history” This is biased.American Exceptionalism:Claimed that due to Anglo-Saxon culture, the US became“Exceptional.” Championed by Talcott Parsons.-America is uniquely free and liberty loving.-American version of the European miracle; mimicked their kind of systemand improved it, thus leading to an economic boom in the future.-Race plays an important role because those living in America felt superior toothers just like how the Europeans thought they were omnipotent compared tothe rest.
Environmental Reductionism Myths:Environment viewed as chief casual factor ofcultural/social development. 3 Common Myths:::::MYTH OF ARID, DESPOTIC ASIA: A concept popularized by Carl Wittfogel. Wittfogel arguesthat peasants in Asia were heavily oppressed by rulers. This was cuz the rulers had to force thepeasants to maintain agricultural projects, such as aqueducts and reservoirs which were used tomove water around.MUTH OF NASTRY TROPICAL NASTINESS, AFRICA: Western scholars claimed the climatewas too harsh and disease was too rampant for large civilizations to emerge in Africa.

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Term
Spring
Professor
douglas

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