Lecture 4 September 11 - Lecture 4 September 11 Defensive Modernization Muhammad Ali of Egypt(1803-40 o Destruction of the Mamalukes greater state role

Lecture 4 September 11 - Lecture 4 September 11 Defensive...

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Lecture 4 September 11 Defensive Modernization Muhammad Ali of Egypt (1803-40) o Destruction of the Mamalukes; greater state role in development: military reorganization; expanded state role in education; expanded and organized the bureaucracy o Emerged as leader of Egypt after French occupation o He invited all other senior commanders to dinner and then killed all of the artillery to kill them all o Tried to modernize Egypt Ottoman Tanzimat “reorganizations” o Imperial decrees in 1839/1856, Ottoman constitutions 1876 o Reforms in human rights, justice, taxation, legal codes, land tenure, military recruitment, education, economic policies Generally unsuccessful because of: o European interest in weak Middle East o Nature of capitalist penetration o Costs of modernization o Uneven local support for reform Ideological responses Islamic conservatism o Sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1878-1909) Sultan of Ottoman Empire “We shouldn’t be going the way of Europe we should be reforming back to the way the Ottoman Empire used to be –conservative” Revivalist/fundamentalist movements o Wahhabis (Arabia), Mahdi (Sudan) o The problem is that we lost correct path of the time of the prophet, we don’t need to go back to Ottoman glory days but days of the prophet o ISIL ideology of today is we’ve lost our way and need to go back to this time Islamic modernism o Jamal al-Din al-Afghani; Muhammed Abduh (forward looking Islam which adapts to the modern age); Rashid Rida Nationalist responses o Local ethnic nationalism o Ottoman nationalism (Young Ottomans) o Turkish nationalism (Young Turks) Committee on Union and Progress Young Turk Revolution (1908) Increasing authoritarianism “Turkification” policies – uniting the Ottoman empire by a sense of Turkish identity In turn, spur growth of Arab nationalism, fanned ethnic centers in Balkans
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Middle East and WWI Ottoman Empire sides with Germany and Austria against Britain, France and Russia
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