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BIOL 2160 Final Study Guide - BIOL 2160 Final (thank God)...

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BIOL 2160 Final (thank God) Study GuideI don’t always ace my finals,but when I do it’s in BIOL 2160.Chapter 11: Muscle Physiology continued7. Termination of Muscle ContractionA contraction you cannot stop (continuous contraction) is called a cramp.oWhy do we cramp? We are dehydrated and missing key electrolytes, mainly potassium
How do you stop muscle contraction?o1. Motor Neuron Input Terminates (you tell your finger to stop wiggling)o2. End Plate Potentials Terminate (your brain stops making action potentials, and stops releasing acetylcholine)o3. High Myoplasmic Calcium Concentration Shuts SR Calcium Channels (Ryanodine shuts the calcium channel gate when there is enough calcium concentration so no more can get in)o4. Active Calcium Uptake Through SERCA Pumps On The SR (SERCA (Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase) Pump is the pump that uses ATP to actively transport calcium back into the SR (out of the cytoplasm)o5. Calcium dissociates from troponin and tropomyosin covers myosin binding sites on actin (when calcium levels drop in the cell, calcium dissociates from troponin. Troponin moves tropomyosin, and you no longer have crossbridges, therefore the muscle fibers relax)
8. The TwitchA twitch is the smallest muscle contractionIt is a single response to an action potential from either a muscle fiber or a whole muscle unitBasically a measure of tension (which is measured in grams). Think: if you can measure the tension in grams, it indicates how much weight you are capable of moving with that twitch. A single twitch for most muscles is not enough tension to really move anything. Since a twitch is a response to only one action potential, and several action potentials in several muscles ae required to move something, twitches do not move anything.oThere are 2 types of twitches: isometric and isotonicIsotonic: muscle-generated force causes muscle shortening and lifts a load (the load must be less than or equal to muscle tension-so the weight of the load has to be less or equal grams to the twitch tension grams). If the object you are trying to move does move, the twitch is isotonic, and you have overcome the mass of the object.Work was done and the muscle shortened.Isometric: muscle generates force but muscle does not shorten. The weight (in grams) of the load was more than the tension (in grams) of the twitch, and the muscle could not overcome the weight of the load.No work was done and the muscle did not shortenSlow twitch fibers vs. Fast twitch fibersoOne way to classify muscle is based on how quick the twitch occurs after receiving the stimulus. The period of time from which you apply the stimulus until the time the muscle achieves its maximum potential is called the Latency Period.o

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Term
Spring
Professor
KT
Tags
Physiology, right ventricle

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