SOCI169-1

SOCI169-1 - -change in family -good = more freedom,...

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-change in family -good = more freedom, positive role-switching -bad = moral obligation becomes unclear, negative long-term outcomes -more divorces -subgroups -we’re all following same trend, but at different levels -economy change affect black families -between 1960s 2000 -families become more organized individually due to advance in technology -public policy seem to be ineffective -intergenerational transmission of divorce -single parenthood, poverty -data are showing that trends are slowing, we are approaching new equilibrium point -support marriage -obesity and heart disease -more available, affordable fresh food vs. less fast-food restaurants -live to work, work to live -we spend more than we can afford to -THEORIES Demographic Transition Theory -Societies start from high-mortality, high fertility regimes. -First move to low-mortality, high-fertility, creating large population growth. -Then fertility declines and mortality and fertility are in balance (zero population growth) Second Demographic Transition -Motivated by same factors as the first transition (e.g., desires for improved standards of living, investment in the quality of fewer children) -New features: -Increased value put on individual autonomy of adults -The goal of female emancipation -Loosening of grip of institutional controls (state and church) -Advanced consumerism -Higher quality demand of relationships -More diversity in relationships -cohabitation
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Second Demographic Transition -3 Phases -1960s-1970s: upswing of divorce, fertility decline, delayed marriage -1980s-1990s: spread of cohabitation & increase in nonmarital births -1990s-2000s: plateau in divorce rates, more post-marital cohabitation replacing remarriage, some recuperation in fertility, stabilization of teen fertility. Life-Course Perspective -Emphasizes transitions ( from one status to anoter) and trajectories -duration in a specific status affects fertility -People make transitions in and out of different states ( from single to married or cohabiting, from nonparents to parents, etc.) -When transitions are linked they form a person’s trajectory -Meanings of transitions change over time and are history specific -Sequence is important in these transitions -Interlocking trajectories connect people across generations and by gender Decision-Making Theories -For explaining change and variation in marriage, fertility, divorce, women’s labor force participation, etc. -Family decisions made by rational actors who weigh the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action, given constraints (opportunity costs Debate Negative: accomplishments
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-marriage movement -Oklahoma –high divorce rate -black people lack marriage children not doing as well -employers, state governments send married couples to marriage savers conferences -marriage is an institution for rearing children -state of Oklahoma attempt to enforce the idea of marriage more seriously
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SOCI169-1 - -change in family -good = more freedom,...

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