All Objectives

All Objectives - ADRENAL GLAND Objectives Adrenal Cortex:...

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ADRENAL GLAND Objectives – Adrenal Cortex : 1. List the functional zones of the adrenal gland. Identify the principal hormones secreted from each zone. Cortex – 80% Capsule, Glomerulosa – looks like kidney secretes Aldosterone, Fasiculata secretes cortisol, Reticularis secrete Androgens. Medulla – 20%, secretes Epinephrine and norepinephrine 2. Be able to identify the structure of a steroid hormone. Three six-carbon rings connected to a five-carbon ring with an antenna on top of the five-carbon ring and between A-B and C-D 3. Name the hormone classes identified by C18 steroids, C19 steroids and C21 steroids. Classification depends on number of carbons. C18 = estrogens, C19 = androgens, and C21 = corticoids and progesterones 4. Describe the effects of stress and time of day on the secretion of cortisol and the negative feedback effect of cortisol. Stress- increase cortisol, Sleep- last few hours and beginning of awake is a peak in cortisol that drops and lingers around 0, and drops at the onset of sleep. Stress activates hypothalamus, releases CRH, CRH stims Anterior Pituitary to release ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) to stimulate adrenal cortex (Fasiculata) to secrete cortisol. Long-loop negative to anterior pituitary and hypothalamus from blood cortisol levels. 5. Explain the hyperglycemic effect of cortisol with respect to its actions on gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization by muscle and adipose tissue. Gluconeogenesis- cortisol enhances transcription/translation of gluconeogenic enzymes. Catabolism- promotes protein and fat catabolism to provide precursors for gluconeogenesis. Inhibits utilization by muscle and adipose (anti-insulin) Deposits glycogen in the liver 6. Explain the effects of cortisol on protein and fat metabolism and the consequences of excessively elevated cortisol levels over a long period of time. Proteins- breakdown, stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver, inhibition of AA uptake by extra-hepatic tissue. Long-term “protein wasting” Fat- lipolysis, increases FFA in blood 7. Correlate the biologic actions of cortisol on carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism with similar or opposing actions of other hormones. Slide 1 8. Explain the effects of cortisol on blood pressure, muscle, bone and CNS. Cortisol maintains BP by: enhancing adrenergic responsiveness of arterioles, optimizing myocardial performance, and decreasing protein permeability in endothelium therefore increasing oncotic pressure inside capillary,
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Adrenal Gland Scott W. Walsh, Ph.D. decreasing edema Cortisol effects muscle by: basal levels necessary for normal contractility, but excessive levels produce atrophy by protein wastage Cortisol effects bone by: decreases bone formation, increasing resorption Cortisol effects CNS by: modulating perceptual/emotional functioning, increase in CRH/cortisol before awakening important for arousal, excess can cause insomnia/euphoria/depression. Type 1 receptor in brain 9. Explain how synthetic glucocorticoids are used clinically with respect to the fetus.
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All Objectives - ADRENAL GLAND Objectives Adrenal Cortex:...

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