IT 223 Midterm Study Guide - IT 223 Midterm Study Guide...

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IT 223 Midterm Study Guide Lecture 1 Information – the communication or reception of knowledge or intelligence Difference between information and data - Information is a meaningful form of data while data is raw facts and figures Security – the quality or state of being secure, safety(freedom from danger, anxiety, job security), surety, protection (guard against espionage, sabotage) InfoSec is security of information and information systems; components of an information system Information security focuses on protection of information assets. Information Assurance focuses on the correctness of information. Information security services: Confidentiality – employee going to porn site Authentication of Integrity – Authentication of origin – Nonrepudiation – Availability – webserver being available Access control – controlling access to Ethernet and wireless networks Tradeoff between security and usability: A perfectly secure system would be unusable. A perfectly usable system would have no security. Lecture 2 Threat – A potential for violation of security, which exists when there is an entity, circumstance, capability, action, or event that could cause harm. It does not require an action , although it may include one. Threat Action – a specific instance of that potential being realized, Examples: malware, hacking Threat Agent – someone or something that creates a threat action, Examples: hackers, organized crime 3 Types of Threat: Natural events – caused by nature, Examples: flood, fire, earthquake Human errors – caused unintentionally by people, Examples: gaining unauthorized data, disabling a system component
Attacks – caused by people who intent to violate security, Examples: Phishing An attack is different from human error because it is intentional while human error is accidental. Other names for a successful attack – incident, compromise, breach Zero-day attack - exploits some vulnerability in a system that was not known to the defenders at the time of the attack About 2/3 of security incidents occur internal to the organization Insider – threat related to employees and other trusted people Why Insiders are a Threat – they are trusted, they may have detailed knowledge of the system, they are the ones operating the defense Insiders might - access things they should not, steal assets, damage the system, allow outsiders to have access, harm other people, violate the law at work, make mistakes that cause problems An ex-employee is a threat because they may harbor malice against the organization. How should an organization handle someone who quits or is fired? Take steps to protects its assets Categories of outsiders that could be a threat: Criminals – amateur, professional, organized Hackers – Highly skilled experts (geeks), competent technicians, “script kiddies” Competitors – Honest, dishonest Terrorists – hacktivists, anarchists Government agents – foreign powers, law enforcement, attorneys, citizens Contractors – utility workers Suppliers

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