2_Tissues and Epithelia_BI210_S22.pdf - INTRODUCTION TO...

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INTRODUCTION TO TISSUES
WHAT ISCYTOLOGY?The study of cells and their functionsMore commonly called “Cell Biology”Cytologists investigate the structure and function of cell components
WHAT IS ACELL?The smallest unit of life that can functionindependently (functional unit)Contains the genetic information for theentire organismIt is composed of moleculesIt can make newmacromoleculesCan reproduce itselfIt has some organization to its contents
CELL BIOLOGYBecause cell biology is a prerequisitefor this course, we won’t review cellbiology in this class.Read Chapter 2 of the textbook for aconcise review.Cells carry out many processesincluding:energy production, replication, DNAsynthesis, respiration, proteinproduction, secretion, communication,etc.Cells will often secrete extracellularproteins which form a non-livingmatrix around them.CiliaMicrovilliSmoothERCentriolesProteasomeRough ERCytoplasmLysosomeMitochondrionNuclearMembraneNucleolusNucleusChromatinGolgiApparatusRibosomesCell MembraneShould know all these terms already
HOW BIG ARE CELLS?Sizes of Biological Structures in Relationto the Resolution of the Eye, LightMicroscope, and Transmission ElectronMicroscopeObjectVisible with the Eye (Resolution 70–100 µm)Human egg, diameterVisible with the Light Microscope (Resolution 200 nm)Most human cells, diameterCilia, lengthMitochondria, width × lengthBacteria (Escherichiɑcoli), lengthMicrovilli, lengthVisible with the Transmission Electron Microscope(Resolution 0.5 nm)Nuclear pores, diameterRibosomes, diameterGlobular proteins, diameterPlasma membrane, thicknessDNA molecule, diameterPlasma membrane channels, diameterSize100 µm10–15 µm7–10 µm0.2 × 4 µm1–3 µm1–2 µm30–100 nm15 nm5–10 nm7.5 nm2.0 nm0.8 nm

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