2_DataLinkLayer - Chapter 2 A Single Segment Network Data...

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TCP/IP Essentials A Lab-Based Approach Chapter 2 Chapter 2 A Single Segment Network A Single Segment Network – Data Link Layer – Data Link Layer Spring 2015
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 2 zjzhao Data Link Layer Main tasks of the data link layer: Transfer network layer data from one machine to another machine via “a data link”. Convert the data between raw bit stream of the physical layer and groups of bits – frames . Perform flow control between sender and receiver. TCP/IP Suite Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 3 zjzhao Types of Networks Point-to-point network • Each link connects two end points: hosts or any network devices Usually for long distance connections Examples: DSL, POS (Packet over SONET/SDH), GbE (Gigabit Ethernet) Broadcast network • A number of stations share a common transmission medium • Usually for local networks Examples: CSMA/CD Ethernet, WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), a.k.a. Wi-Fi Broadcast Network Point-to-Point Network
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 4 zjzhao Multiple Access Network topology Point-to-point N(N-1)/2 links to connect N nodes Broadcast the shared medium forms a single domain Medium access control (MAC) protocols Rules to share a medium Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 5 zjzhao Point-to-Point Protocol – point-to-point network example The Point-to-Point Protocol ( PPP ) is a data link protocol The main purpose of PPP is encapsulation and transmission of IP datagrams, or other network layer protocol data, over a serial link. Currently, PPP is used by most dial-up Internet access, Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL), and cable broadband services. DSL example central office ISP telephone network DSLAM voice, data transmitted at different frequencies over dedicated line to central office DSL modem splitter DSL access multiplexer
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 6 zjzhao PPP Encapsulation PPP frame format Flag: mark the beginning and ending of a frame Protocol: used to multiplex different protocol data No addressing, only two end hosts. Flag Addr. Ctrl. Protocol Data CRC Flag 7E FF 03 7E 1 byte 1 byte 1 byte 2 bytes ≤ 1500 bytes 2 bytes 1 byte 0021 IP Datagram C021 Link Control Data 8021 Network Control Data
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 7 zjzhao Point-to-Point Protocol (RFC 1661) PPP consists of two types of control protocols: Link Control Protocol ( LCP ) Responsible for agreeing on PPP encapsulation options, packet size limits, and detecting common mis-configuration errors over the data link Optional features to provide peer authentication, detect link status Network Control Protocol ( NCP ) PPP supports a family of NCPs and treat each network protocol like an interface – IP Control Protocol ( IPCP , RFC 1332), used for configure the link to transmit IP datagrams
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