4_Routing_v2 - Chapter 4 Static and Dynamic Routing TCP/IP...

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TCP/IP Essentials A Lab-Based Approach Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Static and Dynamic Static and Dynamic Routing Routing Fall 2015
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 2 zjzhao HTTP HTTP TCP TCP IP IP IP IP IP 802.11 MAC 802.11 MAC PPP PPP PPP PPP POS POS POS ATM ATM Ethernet Ethernet Ethernet FH, DS, IR FH, DS, IR DSL DSL 802.3 (PHY) 802.3 802.3 WDM WDM WDM IP Networking Example – High Speed Internet Web Browsing AAA – Authentication, Authorization, Accounting BNG – Broadband Network Gateway DSL – Digital Subscriber Line DSLAM – DSL Access Multiplexer DSSS – Direct Sequencing Spread Spectrum FHSS – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum IR – Infrared POS – Packet Over SDH/SONET WDM – Wavelength Division Multiplexing IP Core Network Ethernet Access Network Internet AAA Server Laptop Laptop ADSL IP DSLAM Gateway Router Wireless Residential Gateway BNG PPP tunnel Ethernet Switch Router Server
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 3 zjzhao Routing Routing is to transfer packets from a source to a destination using network layer protocol information. Two activities: Determine optimal routing paths Transport packets through an internetwork Routing table Records optimal routes. Gets consulted when a forwarding decision is to be made. Can be set manually, updated by some ICMP messages, or by using dynamic routing protocols.
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 4 zjzhao Packet Forwarding from Source to Destination Find out the IP address by DNS query for a given domain name of the destination If the destination is in the same network (or subnet), send the packet directly to the destination in a different network, a router is needed to forward the datagram > If no router available, drop the packet IP packets have to be encapsulated in a link layer frame (e.g., Ethernet frame) A link layer frame can only be sent within the same network (or subnet) The MAC address of the other end is required for sending the link layer frame > ARP
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 5 zjzhao Communications in the Same Network/Subnet What is “the Same Network/Subnet”? Host X wants to send packets to host Y What does the X know X’s IP address X’s subnet mask Y’s IP address Computation by X X’s network/subnet ID: (X’s IP add) & (X’s subnet mask) Y’s network/subnet ID: (Y’s IP add) & ( X’s subnet mask ) If the above two results are the same, X believes that Y is in the same network/subnet If X and Y have different subnet masks, they may have different calculation results Each calculates network/subnet ID by using its own subnet mask
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NYU Polytechnic School of Engineering Slide 6 zjzhao Communications between Two Network Segments (in the Same Network) Two segments connected by a bridge , host X in segment 1 and host Y in segment 2 Assume that at the beginning, the ARP tables of X and Y are empty the bridge has correct entries for X and Y in its filtering database
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