Final Exam Essays
#2 When and how did Christianity ensure its survival?
Apostolic councils Act15:1-5 and Gal 2
What led up to it
-The Christians in Jerusalem (Peter, John, James) and the Christians in Antioch
(Paul, Barnabas) did not agree on the issue of being Jewish in order to be
Jerusalem-YES (for more, see answer to #3)
Antioch-NO (for more, see answer to #3)
When I saw that they were not acting in line with the
truth of the gospel, I said to Peter in front of them all, "You are a Jew, yet
you live like a Gentile and not like a Jew. How is it, then, that you force
Gentiles to follow Jewish customs?
What did it do
-The Apostolic council met in Jerusalem (Acts 15) in 50 AD and approved both
understandings of Christian life, a “non-decisive decision,” according to Hock.
- Judas (Barsabbas) and Silas went back to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas to tell
the Gentiles the decision.
-*“Eventually, the matter would have to be addressed again, but, as it turned out,
Antioch won by default since the Jerusalem Christians, weakened by poverty, loss
of leadership, and war, disappeared.”
-“The Antioch view, however, spread ever farther as Paul’s second and third
missionary journeys took a Christianity free from the obligations of Jewish law to
Europe and perhaps as far as Spain.”
-“Paul’s letters assured that his understanding of Christianity would continue to
be influential long after his death.
-“Paul not only came to define Christianity; he also defined it in such as way that
Christianity would emerge as
a religion separate from Judaism
, for he took
what was central to Judaism, the law, and excluded it from Christianity.”
This seperation occurred by the early second century (Ignatius,
It is outlandish to proclaim Jesus Christ and practice Judaism.
For Christianity did not believe in Judaism, but Judaism in Christianity—
in which every tongue that believes in God has been gathered together.
#3 What is the essence of Christianity, according to Paul?
Paul’s “essence” stems from the question: Does a non-Jew who converts to Christianity
also have to become Jewish and follow the law?
-Christianity began as a new religious movement within Judaism
-The first Christians in Jerusalem were “unselfconsciously Jewish”
-Christians at Jerusalem said YES
All Christians had to become self-conciously Jewish, doers of the law, as
interpreted by Jesus according to “Exceeding Justice.”
Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the