SECTION 2: MANIFEST DESTINYESSENTIAL QUESTIONS1.What were the motivations behind the American push toward westward expansion? How does the westward expansion change and shape the political conditions in the United States during the first half of the 19thcentury? 2.Define “manifest destiny.” How does this concept justify American’s view that it is their inherent right to develop a continental empire?3.Why did Americans meet a steeper resistance against the Plains Indians as opposed to theSpanish, French, and British settlers of the 16thand 17thcenturies? EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES 1803 – 1853 Louisiana Purchase (1803) – Purchased from Napoleon by Thomas Jefferson, for $11,000,000 (4 cents per acre). Doubled the size of the United States, territory reached from Minnesota to Montana.Florida (1819)– Annexed from Spain by James Monroe. Previously Florida was an ungoverned territory that was home to runaway slaves, outlaw Seminoles, pirates, and refugees. Became the leading cattle exporter in the country. Texas (1845)– Formerly the Republic of Texas, broke from Mexico after a revolution in1835-36. The annexation of Texas was the direct cause of the Mexican-American War (1847-48).Mexican Cession (1848)– After being defeated in the Mexican-American War, Mexico ceded half of its territory to make up present day Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Oregon Territory (1846) – After three decades of negotiation with Britain, both the U.S. and Britain settled on the territory boundary between British Columbia and present-day Washington. Gadsden Purchase (1853)– Originally planned to be the location of the Transcontinental Railroad, this land was purchased from Mexico for ten times the amount paid for the Mexican Cession.MOUNTAIN MENManifest Destiny – The belief or doctrine, held chiefly in the middle and latter part of the 19th century, that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand its territory over the whole of North America and to extend and enhance its political, social, and economic influences.Mountain Men – Were pioneers in charting the unknown territory west of the frontier. They found passes across the mountains and were familiar with the perils that could be found along thetrails. After the decline in the fur trade, many mountain men became guides for those making the journey across the Plains to California or joined the army as scouts and guides.
Rocky Mountain Rendezvous – An annual gathering (1825–1840) at various locations held by a fur trading company at which trappers and mountain men sold their furs and hides and replenished their supplies.Jim Bridger– The most famous mountain man of the period. He worked as a mountain man - trapping beaver, trading fur and dealing with Indians. He found passes through the mountains and knew the land well. He is credited with discovering the Great Salt Lake in 1824 and also built Fort Bridger on the Oregon trail. The fort contained a shop and a blacksmiths forge and wasa useful facility for travellers to restock and repair their wagons.