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Sociological Research 2Z03 – Gavin Introduction to Sociological ResearchSEPTEMBER8TH This course is about understanding research methods and toolsWhat are the limitations of understanding human behavior? AdminThe Practice of Social Research (Third Edition) Earl Babbie Class BreakdownoMid term: 25%oFinal exam: 40%oAssignment 1: 15%oAssignment 2: 20%Five mandatory Tutorials oSept 14th- Intro oSept 28th – Operationalizing ConceptsoOct 19th – Designing experiments oNov 9th–Designing survey questionsoNov 23rd– Drop inRead first chapter of Babbie for first weekHistory of ScienceScience: the systematic study of the structure and behavior of psychical and natural phenomena through observation and experiment oThe systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanationsand predictionsThe key element of science is empiricism oScience is a focused, organized and systematic version of how we know the world by experienceScience also involves deductionoTheory creation and hypotheses testing Imperialism oKnowledge comes from sensory experiments Pre-Socratic ScienceFor most of human history, questions about the nature of the world were answered by religious authoritiesoBut mathematics, astronomy emerge in ancient Greece and Egypt Thales of Miletus in the (624 B.C) often considered “father of science”oFirst to suggest non-supernatural explanations for earthquakes, lightningEratosthenes (276 B.C) measured size of earth.. Using two sticks Then… the dark ages (400-1400 C.E) but advancements in Islamic world The Renaissance (1400-1700)oSt Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): natural theology Knowing god, by studying his creation Renaissance= rebirth oGreek humanismThe world is knowable by humans through rational thoughtFocus on human reason and goodness rather supernatural forces Francis Bacon (1561-1626): the scientific method oChallenged the reliance on geniuses and authority figuresoGeniuses need not apple- what science really needs is careful observation and measurement + rational analysis The scientific revolution (16th-17thcentury)
Many scientific flock to astronomyoCopernicus (1473-1543); earth is not at the center of the universe oGalileo (1564-1642); father of modern psychics oIsaac Newton (1642-1726_: laws of motion and universal gravitationBiology and Darwinism oCharles Darwin (1809-1882) saw patterns in organisms and their environments: developed a theory of evolution The social sciences: application of the scientific method to human behavior and societyoAnthropology, economics etc. SEPT11Looking for Reality The question of what is real has been addressed since the time of the Greek Philosophers in the 4thcentury BC oThe matrix- move clipEpistemology: the science of knowing oMethodology: a subset of epistemology: the science of finding out How do we know what we know?