2Z03-LECTURE-NOTES (1) - Sociological Research 2Z03 Gavin Introduction to Sociological Research SEPTEMBER 8TH This course is about understanding

2Z03-LECTURE-NOTES (1) - Sociological Research 2Z03 Gavin...

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Sociological Research 2Z03 – Gavin Introduction to Sociological Research S EPTEMBER 8TH This course is about understanding research methods and tools What are the limitations of understanding human behavior? Admin The Practice of Social Research (Third Edition) Earl Babbie Class Breakdown o Mid term: 25% o Final exam: 40% o Assignment 1: 15% o Assignment 2: 20% Five mandatory Tutorials o Sept 14 th - Intro o Sept 28 th – Operationalizing Concepts o Oct 19 th – Designing experiments o Nov 9 th –Designing survey questions o Nov 23 rd – Drop in Read first chapter of Babbie for first week History of Science Science: the systematic study of the structure and behavior of psychical and natural phenomena through observation and experiment o The systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions The key element of science is empiricism o Science is a focused, organized and systematic version of how we know the world by experience Science also involves deduction o Theory creation and hypotheses testing Imperialism o Knowledge comes from sensory experiments Pre-Socratic Science For most of human history, questions about the nature of the world were answered by religious authorities o But mathematics, astronomy emerge in ancient Greece and Egypt Thales of Miletus in the (624 B.C) often considered “father of science” o First to suggest non-supernatural explanations for earthquakes, lightning Eratosthenes (276 B.C) measured size of earth.. Using two sticks Then… the dark ages (400-1400 C.E) but advancements in Islamic world The Renaissance (1400-1700) o St Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274): natural theology Knowing god, by studying his creation Renaissance= rebirth o Greek humanism The world is knowable by humans through rational thought Focus on human reason and goodness rather supernatural forces Francis Bacon (1561-1626): the scientific method o Challenged the reliance on geniuses and authority figures o Geniuses need not apple- what science really needs is careful observation and measurement + rational analysis The scientific revolution (16 th -17 th century)
Many scientific flock to astronomy o Copernicus (1473-1543); earth is not at the center of the universe o Galileo (1564-1642); father of modern psychics o Isaac Newton (1642-1726_: laws of motion and universal gravitation Biology and Darwinism o Charles Darwin (1809-1882) saw patterns in organisms and their environments: developed a theory of evolution The social sciences: application of the scientific method to human behavior and society o Anthropology, economics etc. S EPT 11 Looking for Reality The question of what is real has been addressed since the time of the Greek Philosophers in the 4 th century BC o The matrix- move clip Epistemology: the science of knowing o Methodology: a subset of epistemology: the science of finding out How do we know what we know?

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