sociology 2Q06 Chapter Four pg. 108-162 - Chapter Four Development and Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence pg.108-162 Human Development any age

sociology 2Q06 Chapter Four pg. 108-162 - Chapter Four...

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Chapter Four: Development and Socialization in Childhood and Adolescence pg.108-162  Human Development – any age related change in body or behaviour from conception to death All such developmental changes occur in the context of 3 interacting dimensions: Historical time – framed by cultural eras and interspersed with watershed events and processes Social time – the socially constructed division of the human lifespan into meaningful age categories Individual life time – the movement of individuals through the life course from birth to death Socialization  Socialization – the lifelong process by which people learn the characteristics of their group – the attitudes, values and actions thought appropriate for them Socialization trains u fro our current or future statuses and roles in society The Family  Considered the primary agency of socialization for two reasons: Prototypical example of a primary group – one characterized by intimate relationships Exerts a primacy effect – it is the first world a child ever knows; the family represents society and culture for at least the first 3 years of the child’s life Our family instills our earliest feelings about ourselves It is within the context of our families that we develop our gender identity and begin to acquire ways to demonstrate masculinity or femininity The School  The school is an impersonal agency of socialization – one characterized by secondary formal relationships Significant socialization messages are transmitted through the hidden curriculum – the unwritten rules of behaviour conveyed along with the formal academic curriculum Teachers’ expectations influence the development, behaviour, and academic success of their students Classroom interactions and social curricula construct what it means to be male and female in ways that limit possibilities for both girls and boys The Peer Group  The peer group consists of people linked by common interest and age They provide children with the experience of intimate relationships They are not self-consciously focused upon either socialization or the future 1 | P a g e
They exert significant long term influences upon their members  Peer relationships play an important role in the development of a child’s self concept and have a strong impact on how children view the roles of males and females’ in society The Mass Media  The mass media is the collective term for the main vehicles of mass communication, comprising print and electric media They are an impersonal agency of socialization The message are transmitted to huge audiences Mass media socialization is unidirectional rather than interactional or interpersonal The media educates, entertains, offers role models and presents guidelines for behaviour The Agencies in Relation to One Another  Agencies of socialization do not operate in solation from one another

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