Lecture 03- The Cellular Level of Organization.pptx -...

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Anatomy and Physiology IWeek 3:The Cellular Level of Organization
Chapter ObjectivesThe purpose of thechapter is to:1.Introduce the parts of acell2.Discuss the importanceof the plasma membrane3.Discuss the componentsof the cytoplasm4.Compare and contrastmitosis and meiosis5.Understand the effectsaging has on the cell
Cytology and Cell DiversityCytology: the scientific study of cellsCell Theory:All organisms are composed of cells.Cells are the basic units of structureand function in organisms.Cells come from preexisting cellsbecause cells are self-reproducing.Cells will differ in size and shape in orderto best fulfill necessary life functions inhumans.
Basic Components of a Cell
Cellular Structure: Plasma MembraneThe plasma membrane issemi-permeablemeaning that it allowsonly certain things into the cell whilekeeping others out.Composition of the plasmamembrane:Phospholipids– forms a bilayer that ishydrophilic on either side of themembrane but hydrophobic in thecenter of the membrane.Cholesterol-prevents the plasmamembrane from becoming too fluid athigh temps and too solid at lowertemps.Proteins-Trans-membrane(Integral) proteinspermeates through the plasma membrane tointeract with each side.Peripheral proteinsdo not protrude throughphospholipids but bind to either side of thecell.Glycoproteins– cellular markers that actas identification tags.
Cilia and Flagella-Extensions of thePlasma Membrane
Filtrationis theprocess of themovement of fluidinto or out of amembrane viapressure differences.Utilized via bloodcapillaries in order totransport water,salts, nutrients intotissues and removalof waste products.Membrane Transport -Filtration
Simple diffusionis themovement particles from anarea of high concentration toan area of low concentration.Diffusion is influenced by:1.Steepness of the concentrationgradient2.Temperature3.Mass of diffusion substanceDiffusion decreases as massincreases4.Surface area5.Diffusion distanceDiffusion decreases as distanceincreasesSimpleDiffusion
OsmosisOsmosis: the diffusion ofwater across a selectivelypermeable membranefrom an area of low soluteconcentration to an area ofhigh solute concentration.As water cannot penetratethe membrane directly andwill require specializedprotein channels known asaquaporins.
Osmosis andTonicityTonicity: refers to the strength ofthe solution.E.g. A 0.9% solution of NaCl (saline) isknown to be isotonic to red blood cells.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Hansen Salhieh

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