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Abnormal PsychologyCh. 14 Sexual Disorder & Gender DysphoriaSexualityis one of the most personal & private areas of an individual’s life. Each of usis a sexual being with preferences & fantasies – these are parts of normal sexual functioning. But when our fantasies or desires begin to affect others or us in harmfulways.14.1 Gender Identity Disorder & Gender Dysphoria Our sense of ourselves as male or female, our gender identity, is so deeply ingrained from earliest childhood that whatever stress is suffered at one time or another, the vast majority of people are beyond a doubt of their gender.In contrast, sexual identityor sexual orientationis the preference we have for the sex of a partner. For example, a man may be attracted to men – a matter of sexual orientation, without believing he is a women – a matter of gender identity. Characteristics of Gender Identity DisorderA huge change in DSM-5 is that gender identity disorder is no longer considered a disorder.Previously it was described as?? People with gender identity disorder (GID):a disorder in which there is a deeply felt incongruence between anatomic sex and the sensed gender; this disorder was dropped from the DSM-5 because some people are not troubled by the incongruence and there is a sense that the disorder was adding stigmaGIDis sometimes referred to as transsexualism: have been described as feeling deep within themselves, usually from early childhood, that they are the opposite sex.They have a dislike to same-sex clothing and activities. The evidence of their anatomy– normal genitals and the usual secondary sex characteristics, such as beard growth for men and developed breasts for women – does not persuade them that they are what others see them to be.A man can look at himself in the mirror, see the body of a biological man, and yet personally experience that body as belonging to a woman. He may try to pass as a member of the opposite sex and may even want to have his body surgically altered to bring it in line with his gender identity.People who often dress in clothing typical of the opposite sex, transvestites donot identify themselves as of the opposite sexGID has been dropped by the DSM-5 b/c?? Concerns have been expressed for many years that it is simply the case that some people do not identify with their biological gender and they shouldn’t be stigmatized for this and assigned a diagnostic label. 1
When gender identity issuesbegin in childhood:A child may express cross-gender behaviours, such as dressing in opposite-sex clothes, preferring opposite-sex playmates, and engaging in play that would be considered more typical of the opposite sex (e.g. boy playing with dolls). These children have a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability (i.e., acceptance that one is a boy or girl for life).