Chapter-2-1 - PART 1 UNDERSTANDING THE WORKPLACE Chapter 2...

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P ART 1: U NDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE Chapter 2: Perception, Personality, & Emotions ▍WHAT IS PERCEPTION, & WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? perception = process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to their environment - People’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION Factors Perceiver attitudes motives interests past experiences expectations - interpretation is heavily influenced by perceiver’s personal characteristics (e.g. we often interpret others’ behaviours based on our own characteristics – we see what we expect to see) - cultural differences Target novelty motion sounds size background proximity - physical & time closeness → unrelated objects grouped together (e.g. objects close to each other perceived together) (e.g. assignment of new manager + increase in sales: may not be related, but b/c of timing, perceived as related) - similarity↑, probability↑that they be perceived as a common group Situation time work setting social setting - elements in surrounding environment influence perceptions (e.g. shorts & T-shirts in social setting → appropriate in work setting → not appropriate) PERCEPTUAL ERRORS Attribution Theory = when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we try to determine whether it’s internally/externally caused - Internally (Int.) caused: under personal control Externally (Ext.) caused: result from outside causes; person forced by situation 3 BEHAVIOURAL RULES 1) Distinctiveness High(Seldom)→ Ext. Low(Frequent)→ Int. whether an individual acts similarly across various situations (How often does the person do this in other situations?) 2) Consensus High(Frequent)→Ext. Low(Seldom)→ Int. whether everyone faced w/ similar situation responds in the same way (How often do other people do this in similar situations?)
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P ART 1: U NDERSTANDING THE W ORKPLACE 3) Consistency High(Frequent)→ Int. Low(Seldom)→ Ext. whether individual’s action is repeated over time (How often did the person do this in the past?) Fundamental attribution error = tendency to underestimate influence of Ext. factors & overestimate influence of Int. factors when judging others’ behaviours Self-serving bias = tendency for ppl to attribute their own successes to Int. factors while putting blame for failures on Ext. factors Selective Perception = ppl’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, attitudes - “speed-read” others, we see what we want to see risk: drawing inaccurate, unwarranted conclusions from ambiguous situation Halo Effect = drawing general impression of an individual on basis of a single characteristic (e.g. student rates prof → may give more weight to a single trait)
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