Brooker_Chp5_GeneLinkageP

Brooker_Chp5_GeneLinkageP - Chapter 5 Gene Linkage Review...

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Chapter 5 Gene Linkage
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Review of Terms Homologous vs Nonhomologous chromosomes Given a diploid organism w/ genotype: Aa Bb How do we know / prove that genes are on different (nonhomologous) chromosomes?? How do we know / prove that genes are on the same (homologous) chromosomes??
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Genes on nonhomologous chromosomes are inherited independently – phenotype governed by Gene A can appear in offspring displaying either B or b phenotype Parental genotype: A/a B/b > Heterozygous F 1 cross
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Genes on homologous chromosomes are expected to “stay together” in offspring – phenotypes will be either 1 Parental genotype: A/a B/b > Heterozygous F 1 cross
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Linkage Two or more genes can be located on the same chromosome [different loci ] Genes that are close together tend to be transmitted as a unit Each chromosome is a linkage group Number of linkage groups = haploid number of chromosomes for the species - in humans: 22 autosomal linkage groups An X chromosome linkage group A Y chromosome linkage group
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Crossing Over May Produce Recombinant Phenotypes In diploid species, linkage can be altered during meiosis as a result of crossing over Occurs during prophase I at bivalent stage Non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange DNA segments
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The haploid cells contain the same combination of alleles as the original chromosomes The arrangement of linked alleles has not been altered
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These haploid cells contain a combination of alleles NOT found in the original chromosomes These are termed parental or non- recombinant cells This new combination of alleles is a result of genetic recombination These are termed nonparental or recombinant cells
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Mechanism of Crossing-over
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Brooker_Chp5_GeneLinkageP - Chapter 5 Gene Linkage Review...

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