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Brooker_Chp6P - Chapter 6 Gene Transfer Mapping in Bacteria...

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Chapter 6 – Gene Transfer &  Mapping in Bacteria and Phages
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‘Facts’ about Bacteria prokaryotic cells   - no nucleus - nucleoid region most have only 1  chromosome - covalently-closed,  circular dsDNA - haploid - genotype = phenotype
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Bacterial chromosomes are mapped  in “minutes” ‘Simplified’  Escherichia coli  map
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‘Facts’ about Bacteria extrachromosomal DNA = plasmid - covalently-closed, circular dsDNA  - genes encode ‘accessory’ functions   asexual replication – binary fission - parent cell replicates chromosome - divides producing 2 daughter cells
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Growing Bacteria bacterial colony -  millions of bacteria, all  offspring of 1 parent cell  prototroph - ‘wild-type’  -  capable of making its  essential nutrients -  grows on minimal  medium  auxotroph - nutritional mutant - grows only on ‘complete’  medium
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Replica Plating
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Replica plating allows negative  selection From: en.wikipedia.org Amp S & Amp R bacteria grow Only Amp R bacteria grow Agar medium lacks antibiotic Agar medium contains antibiotic
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‘Problems’ for asexually replicating cells: . . .   how to adapt to new environmental situations . . . need new genetic information mutation during DNA replication  acquire new DNA sequences from other cells - transformation - transduction - conjugation
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Nonpathogenic vs. Pathogenic  E. coli Escherichia coli  [strain K-12] - chromosome sequence reported, 1997 - ~ 4.6 x 10 6  bp of DNA  - encodes est. 4,288 genes Escherichia coli  [strain O157:H7] - chromosome sequence reported, 2001 - ~ 5.4 x 10 6  bp of DNA - 4.1 Mb in common w/ K-12 - 1.34 Mb unique to O157:H7 - encodes 1,327 more genes
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Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria
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Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacteria
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Option 1 - Transformation
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