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Pre Lab Reading Genetics Meiosis and Inheritance Fall 2021.docx

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Pre Lab Reading: Genetics Part II Meiosis andInheritanceGoalsUnderstand the role of meiosis in sex and reproduction.Appreciate how meiosis affects ploidy.Investigate how linkage affects gamete diversity.Measurable ObjectivesBy the end of this laboratory exercise (including the assigned reading and post-labwork), you should be able to:Define the following terms: meiosis, independent assortment, linked genes, sex-linkedgenes.Simulate meiosis using Popsicle sticks.Model simple Mendelian inheritance using Mr. Potato Head.Explain how meiotic division generates a near- infinite diversity of gamete types.Demonstrate the effect of independent assortment on offspring genotypic andphenotypic diversity.Solve problems involving the inheritance of sex- linked traits.Homework1.Read the pre-lab reading and complete the pre-lab quiz on Canvas prior to lab.2.Complete (to the best of your ability, in pencil on a separate sheet of paper) the meiosisdiagrams on the following pages.3.Have the Lab Reflection Genetics Phenotype to Genotype uploaded by your lab time.
The above image shows adult females produce eggs through meiosis and males producesperm through the same process.Meiosis is the process by which a diploid (2n) cell divides toproduce haploid (1n) cells or gametes.Both eggs and sperm are haploid cells (n or 1n).Fertilization results in a zygote that is diploid (2n).Through the process of mitosis cellsreproduce conserving the ploidy of the cells, in this case 2n.Connections to LectureBoth of these concepts will be discussed in lecture as well as in the lab.Students often findinheritance straightforward, and meiosis more challenging; our hope is to minimize confusionabout meiosis while clarifying how it is intrinsically tied to inheritance, sexual reproduction, andevolution.Pre-Lab ReadingSexual reproduction is the process by which DNA from two different organisms is combined toproduce offspring. This recombination of genetic material can afford tremendous fitnessadvantages over asexual reproduction. Chiefly, it allows mutations that occurred in two differentindividuals to combine in an offspring in novel ways, and with potentially beneficial effects. Toundergo sexual recombination, the genome of each parent must first be divided in half.Thehalving process, or going from diploid to haploid, is calledmeiosis.
Note: You may find the following resource, created especially for this course, helpful:claymation of meiosis:The diagram below depicts meiosis for a cell with one homologous pair of chromosomes(2N=2).Independent AssortmentAlmost all organisms have more than one chromosome pair. When dealing with multiplechromosomes,independent assortment(the process whereby one chromosome pair divides,or assorts, independent of any other chromosome pairs) becomes important. Note that in thediagram of meiosis above, there was no special reason for putting the dark chromosome on theleft side and the light chromosome on the right side; it was random. A second homologous pairwould also line up randomly. Consequently, instead of having one configuration of tetrads (asdemonstrated in step 3), there are now two:

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Term
Fall
Professor
DeenaWassenberg
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