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HTY 203- Medieval Civilizations - Medieval Civilization...

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Medieval Civilization Intro- Geography 15/01/2008 10:18:00 Rise of European Nation States- 19 th  Century Unification of Germany o 1870’s and 1880’s- research program to find out more o Monuments of German History- Previously unpublished material Same thing happened in France, Italy, Spain, the Low Countries, and others  to define their nationhood 20 th  Century Historians began to look at social history Marc Bloch o Forefront of Social Historian o Killed by Nazi’s in WWII Archaeological Founding’s in 1950’s Interest has grown 300-1500 A.D. (Medieval Civilizations) European Topography Small Access to waters (Rivers, Seas, Atlantic) Land travel was difficult Scandanavia o Large mountains, rounded Central Germany, Italy, and others
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o Not too tall Alps and Pyrenees o Same age as Rocky Mountains o Sharp, Not weathered Not possible to raise crops in the Alps or other high areas Low land areas did exist, this is where people lived in greater #’s European Geography Cultural perspective o Origins outside of Europe Agriculture developed in Middle East Valley of Nile, Med Sea Urban life also developed here These spread up through Europe 6-7000 years ago o Far away places became center of maritime provinces Changed during the middle ages Climate 3 patterns o Mediterranean Region Hot Dry Summers Cool Damp Winters Crops (Barley, Wheat) o Temporal Region Less Extreme Middle of Europe o Boreal Region Physical Features Population dropped off north of Mediterranean Much like Maine early in its history However clustered together as much as they could People raised crops and livestock for jobs Migrations
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The European Iron Age 15/01/2008 10:18:00 3 Cultural Traditions:
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“Barbarian” Cultures Classical (Mediterranean) Culture New religion, Christianity Barbarian Traditions Temperate Climate Zone European Prehistoric Sequences Late Neolithic- New or Late Stone Age o Beginnings of Agriculture Started outside of Europe, in Fertile Crescent No Civilization ever existed without a firm agriculture o Ex. Stonehenge and New Grange  British Isles o Adept Tool Makers Bronze Age o Fully-effective agriculture Primary source of substance o Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece o Beginning of the use of metal Bronze Two different metals: Copper and Tin/Arsenic
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Not easy to acquire Bronze o Trade across large areas Iron Age o Archaic Classical Greece Greek City States started to emerge Authors describing peoples like Plate and Socrates o Early Rome o Hellenistic Kingdoms o Roman Empire o Iron
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