Circulatory.08

Circulatory.08 - 0 NOTE! These files are provided for the...

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0 NOTE!! These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class. Some of the material in these files may be copyrighted, and it is not OK for you to share these files with anyone who is not a student in this class or to use them for any purpose other than to study for the exams of our class. Thanks, Carl Johnson
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Circulatory Systems Urea, other waste products glucose, amino acids, other nutrients O 2 CO 2 surface:volume issues circulatory systems enabled the evolution of increasingly complex multicellular organisms 1
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Circulatory Systems 2 Insect Trachea Salmon Gill Lungs Trachea, Gills, & Lungs Maximize Surface Area for Gas Exchange
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Circulatory Systems Purves 49.1 3 Some simple aquatic animals do not have circulatory systems. Some of these aquatic animals have a flat body shape. Why? In open circulatory systems, the blood or circulating fluid is not kept separate from the tissue fluid. There is often a pump ("heart") to help propel the fluid, and vessels direct it, but the fluid leaves the vessels to trickle through tissues. Arthropods, mollusks, and other invertebrates utilize this type of circulatory system. C&R 42.3
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Circulatory Systems In general, open circulatory systems work fine for circulation of nutrients and waste, but are not rapid and efficient enough for O 2 and CO 2 exchange if the metabolic rate is high. This is why insects have separated their circulatory system from their gas exchange system, which is a completely separate and intricate network of tubes (trachea) that bring gas directly to the tissues. The tracheal system has limitations, however . . . 4
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Circulatory Systems A closed circulatory system keeps the blood and tissue fluid separate. One or more muscular hearts and a branching network of vessels (the vascular system) move the blood. The earthworm has a closed circulatory system. The large dorsal and ventral vessels are connected by 5 vessels that serve as hearts. Direction of blood flow is controlled by one-way valves. Purves 49.2 Closed systems have advantages over open systems: –Blood flow, nutrient delivery and waste removal are more rapid. –Closed systems can direct the blood to specific tissues. –Cellular elements and large molecules that aid in transport can be kept within the vessels. 6
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Mammalian blood consists of the fluid matrix (plasma) and cells: red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and the platelets (cell fragments). The hematocrit is a measure of the cellular portions as a percentage of the total blood volume. Our cells are bathed by tissue fluid, which is basically the plasma portion of blood without the large molecules. This tissue fluid is moved by the lymphatic system (next lecture). whole
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BSCI 110B taught by Professor Due during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Circulatory.08 - 0 NOTE! These files are provided for the...

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