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Muscles.08 - 0 NOTE These files are provided for the sole...

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0 NOTE!! These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class. Some of the material in these files may be copyrighted, and it is not OK for you to share these files with anyone who is not a student in this class or to use them for any purpose other than to study for the exams of our class. Thanks, Carl Johnson
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Muscles 1
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Types of Muscles in Vertebrates Purves 47.1 All three types of muscle use actin and myosin, but they are controlled and organized differently 2
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Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle cells are the simplest muscle cells: single nucleus per cell spindle-shaped often in smooth sheets not "striated" because the actin and myosin are not arranged regularly within the cell as is true for cardiac and skeletal muscle cells Smooth muscle: moves food through the digestive tract (involuntary contractions) controls the flow of blood empties the urinary bladder 3
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Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscles are branched into a meshwork. They appear striated because of the regular arrangement of their actin and myosin filaments. Cardiac muscle cells are in electrical contact with one another by gap junctions, and depolarizations begun at one point in the heart rapidly spread through the muscle mass. Although heart activity is modified by the autonomic nervous system, the heart will beat without nervous input because of special pacemaker muscle cells that have a self-generated heartbeat. 4
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Skeletal Muscle All voluntary movements are controlled by skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is also called "striated muscle" because of its striped appearance (due to the regular arrangement of their actin and myosin filaments). Skeletal muscle cells are called muscle fibers. They are large and have many nuclei because they are a fusion of many individual cells. 5
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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle moves the body by contraction (muscle can't actively extend). Movement around joints is accomplished by antagonistic muscle pairs—one contracting, the other relaxing. Connective tissue: Ligaments hold bones together at a joint.
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