Neurobiology.2.08

Neurobiology.2.08 - NOTE These files are provided for the...

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Unformatted text preview: NOTE!! These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class. Some of the material in these files may be copyrighted, and it is not OK for you to share these files with anyone who is not a student in this class or to use them for any purpose other than to study for the exams of our class. Thanks, Carl Johnson The Brain C&R 48.3 1 “Mapping” the Brain FRANZ JOSEPH GALL (1758 -1828) suggested that the brain was divided into 27 separate "organs." Each organ supposedly corresponded to a discrete human faculty. He gradually reached the strong conviction––not only that the talents and dispositions of men are dependent upon the functions of the brain––but also that they might be inferred with perfect exactitude and precision from the external appearances of the skull. This idea came to be called "Phrenology." 2 Parts of the Brain Purves 46.2 The medulla and pons control physical functions such as breathing and circulation. The cerebellum refines motor commands to the joints and muscles. The diencephalon is the core of the forebrain and consists of the thalamus and the hypothalamus. The telencephalon (cerebrum) consists of two cerebral hemispheres, left and right. In humans, the telencephalon is the largest part of the brain and plays major roles in sensory perception, learning, memory, and conscious behavior. spinal cord forebrain midbrain hindbrain 3 Different regions of the cerebral cortex have specific functions. Although many of these functions are easily defined, most of the cortex is involved in higher-order information processing. For example, the temporal lobes are involved in the recognition, identification, and naming of objects. Damage to the temporal lobe results in disorders in which the individual is aware of a stimulus but cannot identify it. Parts of the Brain Purves 46.5 4 The primary motor cortex has axons that project to muscles in specific parts of the body, and areas with fine motor control (e.g., face, hands) have the greatest representation. The primary somatosensory cortex receives touch and pressure information through the thalamus. The whole body surface can be mapped onto the primary somatosensory cortex. Areas of the body that are capable of making fine discrimination in touch (e.g., lips, fingers) have large representation. Motor and Sensory Cortex Purves 46.7 5 Star-nosed mole Slide courtesy of Dr. Ken Catania 6 Star-nosed mole–ventral surface of brain Trigeminal nerves (to the nose) Optic nerves Slide courtesy of Dr. Ken Catania 7 Cortical Magnification in the Star-Nosed Mole 8 Humans Language Areas of the Cortex Several language areas in the left hemisphere have been identified from persons who suffer brain damage and aphasia. Normal language ability depends on the flow of information among various areas of the left cerebral cortex....
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Neurobiology.2.08 - NOTE These files are provided for the...

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