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Running head: FIVE PHASES OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT1Five Phases of Emergency ManagementWilhelm J. Bauer IIIKaplan UniversityFS 120: Introduction to Emergency ManagementAaron BingamanNovember 10, 2015
FIVE PHASES OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT2Five Phases of Emergency ManagementEmergency management functions are generally grouped into five phases: (1) Mitigation,(2) Preparedness, (3) Communications, (4) Response, and (5) Recovery. The grouping of emergency management functions is useful for classifying and conceptualizing activities (2012). While conceptually useful for targeting efforts and resources, the phases of emergency management are not distinct—activities in each phase often overlap (2012). For example, recovery projects often include elements of mitigation (for example, rebuilding structures using current building codes) and response often includes recovery measures (immediate debris removal). The phases are also cyclical in nature—lessons learned from an incident might be applied in preparedness efforts for future emergencies and major disasters (2012).MitigationMitigation refers to measures that reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or reduce the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies (2015). This is achieved through risk analysis, which results in information that provides a foundation for typical mitigation measures include establishing building codes, zoning requirements, and constructing barriers such as levees (2015). Effective Mitigation efforts can break the cycle of disaster damage, reconstruction, and repeated damage (2015).It creates safer communities by reducing loss of life and property damage. For example, the rigorous building standards adopted by 20,000 communities across the country are saving the nation more than $1.1 billion a year in prevented flood damages (2015). It allows individuals to minimize post-flood disaster disruptions and recover more rapidly. For example, homes built to NFIP standards incur less damage from floods(2015). And when floods do cause damages, flood insurance protects the homeowner’s investment, and lessens the financial impact on individuals, communities, and society as a whole
FIVE PHASES OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT3(2015). For example, a recent study by the Multi-hazard Mitigation Council shows that each dollar spent on mitigation saves society an average of four dollars (2015). PreparednessPreparedness activities increase a community’s ability to respond when a disaster occurs (2015). The National Incident Management System (NIMS) defines preparedness as "a continuous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action in an effort to ensure effective coordination during incident response” (2015). This preparedness