1-28-2008 - ""& $" $&" 0 1...

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Unformatted text preview: !" "# &'( ) $% "% $% ( &* #)% + , " - . /. . . 0 1 2, " . " 3 4. 5 6 % % * " ! Chemistry 114 General College Chemistry II # $% ' & (% ) & Instructor: Dr. Gregory Jursich Email: [email protected] BioE Office: 233 SEO Office: Phone: 312-413-8641 Office: 3235 SEL Office Phone: 312-996-3178 Lab: 1215 SEL Lab Phone: 312-996-8373 Office Hours: MWF 12:00 12:45 pm and 2:15-2:45 pm or by appointment Office Hour Location: 233 SEO 0 . ! 3. 0 !% 7 3 8 . 9 ; % <9 :# * $% =! 2 ( " >, ". " 0 . Heats of Formation of products and reactants, Hf0f --common reference: stable elements of reactants and products Bond enthalpies of all products and reactants, B.E. --common reference: isolated atoms of reactants and products 0 0 3 6. 33 . ". " 0 3 $ " (? 3 " 0 $% Examples: C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) NaCl(s) (!0 $ H0f= -393.5 kJ/mol H0f = -411.1 kJ/mol ( Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 C(s) + 3 H2(g) + O2(g) C2H5OH(l) H0f = -277.0 kJ/mol H0r = $ 03(" . ! $ 3(. 3+ . 7 . *+,* /* . -/ 0 , + -/ * . -/ 01 -/ 0 2 6 C(s) + 5 H2 + 3 N2 + 9 O2 2 H0f (C3H5(NO3)5 2 C3H5(NO3)5 H0r = $ 03(" . 5 H0f(H2O) ! $ 3(. H0 H0r 6 H0f (CO2) 5 H2O + 6 CO2 + H2O + O2 4 " 8 /. 8 /. $ [email protected] $&5 34 34 . " . 9 9 . - ( 3 . ( 0 . ? $ B.E.s)reactants (B.E.s)products) (bonds broken) (bonds formed) .7 9 0A ( $. .7 9 B ( 0 4 0 . " CH2Cl2(g) + 2 HF(g) Reaction: CCl2F2(g) + 2 H2(g) ? $ B.E.s)reactants (B.E.s)products) 6 . 2, 3 > 7 .7 , , .- . . $ ( 7 . E(system) = q + w +q -q +w (PV) "system" contracts -w (PV) "system" expands Alternate wording 1st Law: Euniverse = Esystem + Esurroundings =0 E(system) = q + w 9 , .- , 9 &/ " D q C$>3 &> ( work done on the system (w > 0) work done by the system (w < 0) w = -Pext(h2-h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atm ( @ &$ 0 . ? @% ; -= ' q=0 w=-PextV=0 E = H = 0 vacuum 0.5 atm 0.5 atm 5" 7. M" . " 3 /. ? $%:(' = . 3 ' ? %% =H 3 /. 1 4 16 possible arrangements 4 /. ? $%:(+ = 3+ 6 ? $%F. = 7N ( 1 + 3 #8 ( + 3 . 3" .7 .. 7 . 3" .7 9 .. 7 .. 7 33 . 3 3 7 . 3 3. .. 7 3 ( % 7 + .. ! ( . 3" 7 3 % . . .9 5 B9 . . 3 3 .7 . More microstates -> more probability -> higher entropy " &A O . 7 " 7 3 F" . 7 . 7 $ . 3O. 7P . . " ". .7 7 . F ( > 07 . $ . 2, . . " . $ ?( % ". . " ". ( ". . ". . . 9 . F " .7 . 9 .7 F . 9 5 ?- . 1 ? .7 However, T = exactly 0 K is not achievable > Q ". . " . " 7 5F"? Hvap/Tvap F 9 ." 3 > 5 ? 03 =3 . 5 P . ". . 7 " . " 3 3 3 ...
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