1-30-2008 - "5"$&"$& 0 1.2 4 3...

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Unformatted text preview: ! !'# ) * , . "5 # # ( !# ' "$%& # "$( # & + , , ,. / 0 1* , .2 , 4 3 Chemistry 114 General College Chemistry II # #$& % '$ ( % Instructor: Dr. Gregory Jursich Email: [email protected] BioE Office: 233 SEO Office: Phone: 312-413-8641 Office: 3235 SEL Office Phone: 312-996-3178 Lab: 1215 SEL Lab Phone: 312-996-8373 Office Hours: MWF 12:00 12:45 pm and 2:15-2:45 pm or by appointment Office Hour Location: 233 SEO ,# 4 # 6' 7 8 *2 , 6 6 , , 9 5 , ' $ ' $ , 62 6 4 6, : , 2 . , .2 , 1 . , .2 % ; "< % ; ## #=& <> # ,, 6 4 4 , ; "< ) #=& .2 ) 6 1 ; "< ,. 6? #8 & 4 6, .2 , 1 . , .2 # ; % "< % ; %<> #=& % ,, 6 4 4 6 1 4 6, .2 , 1 . , .2 = <> ; >"< % ; ># #=& > ,, 6 4 4 So a 2:2 combination most probable 6 as it has greatest number of arrangements 1 ) )* ' ) , 2 ,, 6 , 2 ,, 6 ,, 6 2, 2 ,, 2 2 ' $ 2, 2 6 2 @ 6 " . 2 & 6 , ' $ +% . , , , A , +, , , 2 2 , , 2 k = Boltzmann Constant = R/N0 = 8.314 J/mol-K = 1.31 x 10-23 J/K 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 ln natural log (base e) W = number of microstates or "arrangements" More microstates -> more probability -> higher entropy B , 6 6 2 8 , 6 , 6 " , 2 , A 6? 2 $C A , , . , ,6 . 6 , 8 & A, 8 6) E , , B B 5, 4 2 6 2 6* 6 2 , "& 2 * , 2 * , , , . D S > 0 S >0 6 ,6 6 2 , 6 , ( # S < 0 S > 0 S > 0 S < 0 Depends +2 , F , /6 , " , 1* , , . , " ;# & , , . , & , , , , @ 4;+ , 0 ; . ,6 . , @ , @ , 8 ,6 . ,6 . 8 However, T = exactly 0 K is not achievable , B , , 6 4. , S0 = qrev/T S0 = H0/T 298 K , . .2 2 2 H0 = cp T H0 = cpT T T S0298 K S00 K = (cp/T)dT 0 S0 0K "naught" refers to standard state as before with H typ. std state at 1 atm, 298 K 6 2 F, G 8 . 2, @ , .2 , 6 48 ; Hvap/Tvap F 42 ; /2 <2 unit analysis: S = H/T J/mol-K (J/mol)/K ' $ +'. , +. ' * / +.' ' #* * + * #' 0 1 ' ' * * 0 #2 Sr0 = c S0 (of C) + d S0(of D) a S0(of A) - b S0 (of B) Almost identical to Hr0 except no "reference" species. Entropies of products and reactants are "absolute" values relative to zero entropy at T = 0 K. #$ # 3 3 * * +'. +. ( 5-' 4 78 6" ' * - +: 3 ' 9 , 6 * ! * =/=4"& H 6 72 L 4 =! K L "< $K& J /=4 "& 6 = (> J I= "& 6 = ( 4I= "& 6 =%J# # 6 J = /=I "& # JM I="& 6 = 4I="& H = /=I"& 6 6 4, ; = 4 " =& H = 4 " =I& 2 S0(2S&$ 4 " =& 4I / I ; =" # & H ="J M =%J # # J =& =" (> &$ " ( & = J = ; $# = M < $K ( ! 4 ;C " M 6/=4&" <% M 6 M J => # > &; J , < = /=4&" ( M < $K&; $# = ! / =4 4 ; " M % J /=4&" # !J K 4 ; $( J < = , 1* 2 F 64 )/% "& , $/ $" . 6 # #* & / N ' )/%H" & H H 6" & H ' $" $; ; ; & 6 "& 4 N + - $ # #* ' = 1 '' # 1* 2 F # , . # ' #> = + - $ /< # #* ? $ * ' 6 + ' ' * %+ ' , :+ 2, $ 0 + , '' # 3 @ . 6 , H 6" & H $" 7 & 6 "& 4 . N / N / 4 ' , ,, ,, 6 C 0 + '' # + , :+ $ 3@ . Heat liberated, H < 0 , compensates for Ssys < 0 , , 2 6 4 6 @ ,* , 2 8C , 4 4 4 8C 8; , @ 2,* , 6 , 8N O 7 , 5 , ,6 @ .O , 64 8@ 2 * 2 . /@ @ , .4 @ , 8 886 O ; / $ F4 O . ; / . $ " . F4& #' * : ' ' ' ' # ' * ' / ' % * ' -'3 O . ; O . $ F(Ssys) ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 114 taught by Professor Jursich during the Spring '08 term at Ill. Chicago.

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