Lecture 13

Lecture 13 - Prepared by T Wagener & P Reed T. P. Penn...

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Water Resources Engineering - Lecture 13 repared by T Wagener & P Reed 1 Prepared by T. Wagener & P. Reed Penn State University
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ontent Overview of Groundwater Hydrology Content I. Overview of Groundwater Hydrology II. Key Terms and Properties ydrostratigraphic nits A. Hydrostratigraphic Units B. Aquifer Parameters C. Heterogeneity/Anisotropy III. Darcy’s Law IV. In-Class Example 2
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CLOUD FORMATION PRECIPITATION * * * * * * * * EVAPORATION WT SNOWMELT RUNOFF FROM FALLING RAIN FROM WET INFILTRATION IL OVERLAND FLOW SPRING INTERCEPTION DEPRESSION VEGETATION AND PUDDLES TRANSPIRATION ROM FROM STREAMS ND WT SS O STORAGE SOIL MOISTURE WATER TABLE (WT) FROM SOIL AND OPEN WATER WT GROUNDWATER BASE FLOW STREAM FLOW LAKE OR 3 Modified from Brutsaert, 2005. Hydrology . Cambridge University Press IMPERMEABLE LAYER (IL) SEA
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roundwater in the US Groundwater in the US 4 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wugw.html
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roundwater in the US Groundwater in the US 5 http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/pubs/fs00086/pdf/fs-086-00.pdf
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roundwater in the US Groundwater in the US 6 http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/pubs/fs00086/pdf/fs-086-00.pdf
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ainwater Harvesting in India Rainwater Harvesting in India In essence, harvesting water means harvesting the rain. In India, the monsoon is a deluge. Flash floods hurn up dry river beds. Dry wells come to life; churn up dry river beds. Dry wells come to life; lakes and ponds brim with water. In India the monsoon is brief. We get about 100 hours of rain in a year. It is this 100-hour bounty that must be caught, stored, and used over the other 8,660 hours that make up a year. 7 http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Solution/Solution.htm
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Rainwater Harvesting Artificial recharge to groundwater is a process by which the ground water servoir is augmented at a rate in India reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. Any man-made scheme or facility that adds water to an aquifer may be considered to be an artificial recharge system. 8 http://www.rainwaterclub.org/docs/WF4-05_Rainwater_Harvesting.pdf
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elevance of Groundwater Relevance of Groundwater • Of the total amount of freshwater on this planet, p, about 30.1% is contained in the subsurface – it is groundwater. • This is particularly important since another 69.6% is held in ice caps and glaciers. roundwater is an important resource in many • Groundwater is an important resource in many areas. It is often a preferable source because of water temperature, quality, or accessibility. 9
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he Saturated Zone The Saturated Zone 10
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Let’s Picture the Flow of Water in a Porous Medium Schematic of a thin ection of the poro s section of the porous medium and the tortuous flow path of two water “parcels”. Note that the real medium is three- dimensional. 11
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oil Soil 12 Figure 6.1.1 (p. 142) Triangle of soil textures for describing various combinations of sand, silt, and clay (from U.S. Soil Conservation Service (1951)).
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Hydraulic Conductivity [L/T] 13 Table 6.1.2 (p. 146) Range of Values of Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability
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roundwater in Natural Formations Groundwater in Natural Formations Aquifuge Aquiclude 14 Figure 6.1.3 (p. 144) Types of aquifers (from U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1981)).
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Lecture 13 - Prepared by T Wagener & P Reed T. P. Penn...

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