Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Water Resources Engineering...

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ater Resources Water Resources ngineering Lecture11 Engineering Lecture11 nfiltration/Unsaturated - Infiltration/Unsaturated low Flow Prepared by T. Wagener & P. Reed
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CLOUD FORMATION PRECIPITATION * * * * * * * * T SNOWMELT RUNOFF FROM FALLING RAIN EVAPORATION OVERLAND FLOW SPRING WT FROM WET VEGETATION AND PUDDLES INFILTRATION IL INTERCEPTION WT DEPRESSION STORAGE US TRANSPIRATION FROM SOIL FROM STREAMS AND OPEN WATER SOIL MOISTURE GROUNDWATER WATER TABLE (WT) ASE FLOW WT BASE FLOW STREAM FLOW LAKE OR EA 4 Modified from Brutsaert, 2005. Hydrology . Cambridge University Press IMPERMEABLE LAYER (IL) SEA
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What happens to water in a watershed? pp
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filtration Infiltration • Process of water penetrating into the soil The rate of infiltration is impacted by py • The condition of the soil egetative cover Vegetative cover • Soil properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity, moisture content)
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(Percolation)
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Important Soil Properties Porosity, η (“nu”): defined as a ratio of the volume of voids to the tal volume of a porous rock or soil reported as decimal fraction or total volume of a porous rock or soil, reported as decimal fraction or percent. volume of voids η= Soil moisture content, θ (“theta”): defined as the ratio of volume of water to total volume η the total volume of a porous rock or soil volume of water tl l θ= Hydraulic conductivity , K : property for porous media (soils, rocks, tc.) that has the dimensions of a velocity (length per time). total volume etc.) that has the dimensions of a velocity (length per time). Represents the ability of a porous media to transmit water (clays have very small K, gravels has a very high K)
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Darcy’s Law : Understanding Porous Media Flow In 1856, a French hydraulic engineer named Henry Darcy developed the experiment above. The experiment describes how water flows through porous edia media. Exercise: Derive Q in terms of pressure head, hydraulic conductivity, and area – We know this situation is different from pipe flow since flow must navigate onnected voids connected voids
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Lecture 11 - Water Resources Engineering...

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