BioE210 HW4 - Danny Marnell BioE 210 HW#4 1 1 At an...

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Danny Marnell BioE 210 HW #4 1. 1) At an excitatory synapse, the activated receptor opens non-selective channels. This allows for a free flow dependent on electrochemical gradient of sodium, potassium, and other small positive ions. Because sodium has a large gradient into the cell and potassium has a small gradient out of the cell, the net movement of the ions is into the cell, creating a slight depolarization which brings the potential closer to the threshold. However, in an inhibitory synapse, the activated receptors open potassium or chloride channels, leaving the sodium channels unaffected. This results in a net flow of ions out of the cell, hyperpolarizing the membrane potential, and moving it further from the threshold. 3) Release and degradation of neurotransmitter inside axon terminal, increased neurotransmitter release into the synapse, prevention of neurotransmitter release into synapse, inhibition of synthesis of neurotransmitter, reduced reuptake of neurotransmitter from the synapse, reduced degradation of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, agonists or antagonists can occupy the receptors, reduced biochemical response inside the dendrite. 4) Neuromodulators differ from neurotransmitters in that they can change the result of the neurotransmitters’ job, by amplifying or dampening the activity of neurotransmitters
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