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CH 4 - Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions...

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Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions
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The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4.6 Elements in Redox Reactions 4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 4.2 Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions 4.3 Precipitation Reactions 4.4 Acid-Base Reactions 4.5 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions 4.7 Reversible Reactions: An Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium
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Figure 4.1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O.
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Figure 4.2 The dissolution of an ionic compound.
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Figure 4.3 The electrical conductivity of ionic solutions.
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Sample Problem 4.1 Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Ionic Solutions PROBLEM: How many moles of each ion are in the following solutions? (a) 5.0 mol of ammonium sulfate dissolved in water (b) 78.5 g of cesium bromide dissolved in water (c) 7.42x10 22 formula units of copper(II) nitrate dissolved in water (d) 35 mL of 0.84 M zinc chloride SOLUTION: PLAN: We have to relate the information given and the number of moles of ions present when the substance dissolves in water. (a) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ( s ) 2NH 4 + ( aq ) + SO 4 2- ( aq ) 5.0 mol (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 2 mol NH 4 + 1 mol (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 = 10. mol NH 4 + 5.0 mol SO 4 2- H 2 O
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Sample Problem 4.1 Determining Moles of Ions in Aqueous Ionic Solutions continued 78.5 g CsBr mol CsBr 212.8 g CsBr = 0.369 mol CsBr = 0.369 mol Cs + = 0.369 mol Br - (b) CsBr( s ) Cs + ( aq ) + Br - ( aq ) 7.42x10 22 formula units Cu(NO 3 ) 2 mol Cu(NO 3 ) 2 6.022x10 23 formula units = 0.123 mol Cu(NO 3 ) 2 = 0.123 mol Cu 2+ = 0.246 mol NO 3 - (c) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( s ) Cu 2+ ( aq ) + 2NO 3 - ( aq ) 35 mL ZnCl 2 1L 10 3 mL = 2.9x110 -2 mol ZnCl 2 (d) ZnCl 2 ( aq ) Zn 2+ ( aq ) + 2Cl - ( aq ) 0.84 mol ZnCl 2 L = 2.9x110 -2 mol Zn 2+ = 5.8x10 -2 mol Cl - H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O
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Figure 4.4 The hydrated proton.
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Sample Problem 4.2 Determining the Molarity of H + Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Acids PROBLEM: Nitric acid is a major chemical in the fertilizer and explosives industries. In aqueous solution, each molecule dissociates and the H becomes a solvated H + ion. What is the molarity of H + ( aq ) in 1.4M nitric acid? PLAN: SOLUTION: Use the formula to find the molarity of H + . One mole of H + ( aq ) is released per mole of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) HNO 3 ( l ) H + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) 1.4M HNO 3 ( aq ) should have 1.4M H + ( aq ). H 2 O
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Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions The molecular equation shows all of the reactants and products as intact, undissociated compounds. The total ionic equation shows all of the soluble ionic substances dissociated into ions. The net ionic equation eliminates the spectator ions and shows the actual chemical change taking place.
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Figure 4.5 A precipitation reaction and its equation.
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Figure 4.7 The reaction of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 and NaI. double displacement reaction (metathesis) NaI( aq ) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + NaNO 3 ( aq ) 2NaI( aq ) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2NaNO 3 ( aq ) 2Na + ( aq ) + 2I - ( aq ) + Pb 2+ ( aq ) + 2NO 3 - ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2Na + ( aq ) + 2NO 3 - ( aq ) 2 Na I ( aq ) + Pb ( NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2 NaNO 3 ( aq )
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Predicting Whether a Precipitate Will Form 1. Note the ions present in the reactants.
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