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# Ch-11 - Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and...

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Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes

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Heat and Internal Energy Internal Energy , U, is the energy associated with the microscopic components of the system Includes kinetic and potential energy associated with the random translational, rotational and vibrational motion of the atoms or molecules Also includes any potential energy bonding the particles together Heat is the transfer of energy between a system and its environment because of a temperature difference between them The symbol Q is used to represent the amount of energy transferred by heat between a system and its environment
Units of Heat Calorie A calorie is the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water from 14.5° C to 15.5° C A Calorie (food calorie) is 1000 cal US Customary Unit – BTU BTU stands for British Thermal Unit A BTU is the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water from 63° F to 64° F 1 cal = 4.186 J This is called the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

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Specific Heat Every substance requires a unique amount of energy per unit mass to change the temperature of that substance by 1° C The specific heat, c, of a substance is a measure of this amount SI units J / kg °C Historical units cal / g °C T m Q c =
Heat and Specific Heat Q = m c ΔT ΔT is always the final temperature minus the initial temperature When the temperature increases, ΔT and ΔQ are considered to be positive and energy flows into the system When the temperature decreases, ΔT and ΔQ are considered to be negative and energy flows out of the system

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Ch-11 - Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and...

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