CHARLENE KOTEI chapter 17 summary - CHARLENE KOTEI AP GLOBAL MR TERRY CHAPTER 17 SUMMARY The Columbian exchange refers to the exchange of crops animals

CHARLENE KOTEI chapter 17 summary - CHARLENE KOTEI AP...

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CHARLENE KOTEI AP GLOBAL- MR TERRY CHAPTER 17 SUMMARY The Columbian exchange refers to the exchange of crops, animals and resources between the New and Old World. From the Americas came peppers, maize, potatoes, tomatoes, snap beans, Lima, beans, and squash. Maize and potatoes became staple crops throughout Europe. This led to the failing of the Irish potato and famine. From Europe, to the Americas came wheat, rye, barley, oats and millet. Today, wheat and rye are used in the bread making business. The horse, adopted by the Native Americans, was a European resource that later resulted in the Great Plains cultures. Introduction of New World crops contributed to the rapid growth in world population after 1700. The Americans held vast amounts of gold and silver. Most economies were money oriented because of the rate at which the trade grew. Europeans pushed for more trade. Having somewhere to go and new opportunities invigorated Europe, people could now seek their fortune or get a fresh start. The thirst for long distance trade and adventure also increased technological development of the deep ocean ships. As it is known, “all that glitters is not gold”. When Europeans first came to the Americas they inadvertently introduced a number of diseases. These included forms of tuberculosis, measles, cholera, typhus, and smallpox. This exposure to foreign diseases had the most impact on the Native American population; it wiped them out. Native Americans had little immunity to any of these imported diseases. The migration route into the Americas had been through arctic regions. The cold acted as a "filter" preventing some diseases from entering. During their thousands of years of isolation, the inhabitants of the Americas had avoided the diseases that swept through the rest of the world. However, this also meant that they had no immunity, protection, from these same illnesses. The Council of West Indies was created by the Spanish crown to exert direct control over its American colonies. The difficulty of communication between Spain and the New World led to the Viceroys of New Spain and Peru enjoying a great deal of power. Governmental Institutions established by Spain and Portugal were highly developed. They were indeed costly bureaucracies. They thwarted local economic initiative and political experimentation. On the other hand, the Catholic Church played an important role in the transferring of European
languages, cultures, and Christian beliefs to the New World. The Catholic Clergy converted large number of Amerindians even though some Amerindians secretly held on to some of their beliefs and practices. The Catholic clergy protected Amerindians from some of the exploitation and abuse of the Spanish settlers. Bartolome de Las Casas denounced Spanish policies toward the Amerindians. He also worked to improve the status of Amerindians through legal reforms such as the New Laws of 1542. These laws were 1 a were a series of laws and regulations approved by

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