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CHAPTER 22SHADOWS OVER THE PACIFIC: EAST ASIA UNDER CHALLENGE
Focus Questions•Why did the Qing dynasty decline and ultimately collapse, and what role did the Western powers play in this process?•What political, economic, and social reforms were instituted by the Qing dynasty during its final decades, and why were they not more successful in reversing the decline of Manchu rule?
Identifications•McCartney Mission Tao & Zhidong•Lin Zexu Youwei•Chinese-Japanese war, 1894•Letter to Queen Victoria100 days of reform•Opium War 1839-1842Boxer Rebellion•Treaty of Nanjing, 1842Open Door Notes•Taiping Rebellion Sun-Yat Sen•Hong Ziuquan, 1853•Shikai & 1911 Revolution•Treaty of Tianjin, 1860 Self Strengthening
The McCartney mission to China, 1793The Art Archive/Eileen Tweedy
The Qing Empire•Shown here is the Qing Empire at the height of its power in the late eighteenth century, together with its shrunken boundaries at the moment of dissolution in 1911.
Decline of the Manchus•Internal factors of decline after 1800–Official Corruption–Peasant unrest–Incompetence at court–Rapid population growth – land pressures
Decline of the Manchu•External Factors of Decline–Western influence–Aggressive policies of trade expansion–Trade limited to Canton–Unfavorable balance of trade for Britain•Tea exported to Britain•Nothing imported
Triumph of English Imperialism•Opium grown in NE India and shipped to China•Traditionally grown in Southern China but prohibited for social or general use–Indian Opium pushed on the Chinese population illegally by British Merchants
Lin Zexu•Appointed to court to curtail Opium trade, 1839–Letter to Queen Victoria (Moral & Practical appeal)–Imposed penalties on smokers–Arrested dealers–Seized supplies from importers•Blockade of British factory in Canton used to justify British Naval expedition against China
The Opium War1839 -1842The Art Archive/Eileen Tweedy
Opium War•Demonstrated British military strength•Will of British East India Co. •Treaty of Nanjing, 1842–Opened 5 coastal ports to British trade–Limited tariffs on British imports–Extraterritorial rights conferred on British Citizens–Court paid indemnity to cover costs of war–Ceded Hong Kong (“Barren Rock”) to Britain
•Opium trade remained unabated until the early 19thC
The Taiping RebellionoHong Ziuquan Led rebellion, 1853 seized NanjingoRepressed by 186425 million people killed over 11 years of rebellion
Western Aggression, 1860 •Britain & France took opportunity to