comm203 Review Exam 2- Reading

comm203 Review Exam 2- Reading - Communication Exam#2...

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Communication Exam #2 Readings Smith et al. (1998) NTVS 1. FOUR FOUNDATIONS OF STUDY a. 1- TV violence contributes to harmful effects on viewers b. 2- Three types of harmful effects can occur from viewing TV violence i. Learning aggressive attitudes and behaviors ii. Desensitization to violence iii. Increased fear of being victimized by violence c. 3- Not all violence poses the same degree of risk of these harmful effects i. Attractive perpetrator: increases aggression ii. Attractive victim: increases fear iii. Justified violence: increases aggression iv. Unjustified violence: decreases aggression, increases fear v. Conventional weapons: increases aggression vi. Extensive/graphic violence: increases aggression, fear, desensitization vii. Rewards: increases aggression, fear viii. Punishments: decreases aggression, fear ix. Pain/harm cues: decreases aggression x. Humor: increases aggression, desensitization d. 4- Not all viewers are affected by violence in the same way i. Younger more likely to perceive fantasy/cartoon as realistic, also less capable of linking scenes together to make sense of events that occur at different points in a program (below 7 is vulnerable) 2. KNOW TABLE 1 3. KEY ASPECTS OF DEFINITION a. Violence is defined as any overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force or the actual use of such force intended to physically harm an animate being or group of beings. Violence also includes certain depictions of physically harmful consequences against an animate being or group that occur as a result of unseen violent means b. Three Forms i. Credible threats ii. Behavioral acts iii. Harmful consequences of unseen violence c. Talk about Violence – reality TV – verbal recounting of threats, acts and/or harmful consequences by a person or person-like character appearing on screen or heard from off- screen 4. SAMPLE a. 9 month period each year from Oct 1994 to Nov 1997 b. 23 TV channels to create a composite week of content for each source c. 6 am to 11 pm d. Five categories
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i. Broadcast networks ii. Independent broadcast iii. Public broadcast iv. Basic cable v. Premium cable 5. MEASURES: INCIDENTS, SCENES, AND PROGRAMS a. Violent Incident: interaction between a perpetrator and a victim b. Violent Scene: instance of ongoing, uninterrupted violence c. Violent Program: evaluated to determine if there is an overall theme of violence or anti-violence 6. FINDINGS a. Much of TV violence is still glamorized i. Perpetrators are attractive ii. No punishment or remorse b. Most violence of TV continues to be sanitized i. ½ no physical harm or pain ii. Most don’t show long-term damage of violence c. Much of the serious physical aggression on TV is still trivialized i. Physical aggression would be lethal in real life ii. TV includes humor d. Very few programs emphasize an anti-violence theme e. 60% of TV programs contain violence 7. HIGH-RISK DEPICTION a. When several plot elements that encourage aggressive attitudes and behaviors are all featured in one scene i. A perpetrator who is an attractive role model ii. Violence that seems justified iii.
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