From around 1911 to 1915, D.W. Griffith and other filmmakers struggled to convince
movie studios to allow them to expand the length of a movie from roughly 15 minutes to 90 minutes
From Reverence to Rape (1974).
She addressed negative stereotypes of women on screen
(Madonna’s, whores, vamps, gold diggers) that typically either infantilized women on reduced them to
sexual objects. Mainstream both idealized and abused women on screen (reverence/rape).
One of the major figures in the development of postwar experimental cinema.
—the preeminent avant-garde filmmaker of the postwar period
—closely associated with modernist poetry and abstract expressionist painters
—he embraces self-expression and the exploration of subjectivity, but is more attentive to the
—interested in elements of
(moths, water, births, sex, etc.)
—an innocent relation to nature and the world; a return to vision unencumbered by ideological, cultural, or
French filmmaker, 1985
is one of the most radical contemporary revisions of
the road movie.
Alice Guy Blache:
The earliest and most prolific woman director in history, but has barely been
acknowledged in mainstream film histories. Made what some consider the very first fiction film,
for Gaumont studios in 1896 France. She set up her own U.S. company and turned out
hundreds of films from a New Jersey studio.
Berlin: Symphony of a City (1927)
, creates a conceptual whole through
French film theorist, one of the most prolific and influential contemporary theorists, has
also been at the center of spectatorship theory. He refers to linguistic and psychoanalytic terminology in
the title of his influential book (1977)
The Imaginary Signifier.
—further developed cinema’s parallel with Lacan’s
—cinema thus presents an illusory experience of wholeness than seems to override and compensate for
the experience of lack in the male viewer
in relation to the mirror stage; cinema shows us a realistic image of what is
actually absent (ala the Lacanian mirror)
—the male viewer nevertheless encounters the issue of “lack;” consequently, the film typically reenacts
and works through the Oedipal trajectory in order to ease the spectator
French psychoanalyst, in his teachings from the 1950s through his death in 1981, he
spoke of 3 domains of psychic experience: the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real. Lacan revises Freud
by shifting the terms of investigation from biology to
. We thus come to understand ourselves as
subjects through our adoption and incorporation into a system of
, not merely through our
physical development and sexual maturation. Emphasizes the importance of