Frog Heart - Frog Heart Arthur Yazhemskiy Ricky Pius...

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Frog Heart Arthur Yazhemskiy Ricky Pius Section L02 Garry Kushnir 11/28/2006
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Yazhemskiy 2 Introduction The heart is a muscle that is responsible for the movement of blood, gasses, and other nutrients. There are a couple of mechanisms that control and regulate the heart rate and its strength. Autogenic cells located inside the right atria are able to depolarize on their own, which depolarize the rest of the heart tissue. The signal follows the following path: SA node, AV node, bundle of his, interventricular septum, and down the perkinje fibers. By this process, the original signal that originated form the SA node is able to depolarize both atria and ventricles. Neurotransmitters, hormones, and ions modify the strength of each contraction. During the lab, the group set out to test the effects of neurotransmitters and ions on the heart via injection into the liver. Catecholamines directly affect cardiac function by binding to cardiac Beta-receptors. The Catecholamines used by the group were: Norepinephrine, Adrenaline, and Isoproterenol. Acetylcholine Atropine were used due to the opposite effects on the heart. Since Atropine blocks the action of Acetylcholine on cardiac muscarinic receptor, it is used to revive someone that has had his or her heart stop due to Acetylcholine application. Ions were also used in the experimentation to see the effect of Calcium and Potassium on the cardiac cycle. Materials and Methods The group followed the instructions for experiments 1 through 5 from the lab manual, pages 7-1 to 7-16. The laboratory instructions were followed with the following changes: in experiment 5, the order in which the agents were introduced was changed in order to generate better, more accurate, results from the frog heart. Acetylcholine was the first to be injected instead of 4 th as listed, and Atropine Sulfate was last to ve injected instead of 5 th . 2
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Yazhemskiy 3 Experiments and Results In Experiment 1, the mechanical events in the Cardiac Cycle were identified with the use of the recorded data and the single event button. The pressing of the “single event” button provided the group with a clear and reliable way of identifying the mechanical events on the contraction record by drawing a red line on the record. The Peak of Ventricular Contraction was identified at the intersection of the record and the red line (Graph 1a). The Maximum Ventricular Relaxation was identified at the intersection of the record and the red line (Graph 1b). The Peak of Atrial Contraction was identified at the intersection of the record and the red line (Graph 1c). The Maximum Atrial Relaxation was identified at the intersection of the record and the red line (Graph 1d). In Experiment 2, an extra ventricular contraction was induced via stimulus, in order to
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Frog Heart - Frog Heart Arthur Yazhemskiy Ricky Pius...

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