Bio. Laboratory Report - Enzymes in the Human World Matthew...

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Enzymes in the Human World Matthew Griffin BSC2010 Sect. 15 March 27, 2008 By signing here, I guarantee that I am the sole author of this Laboratory Report. Name: Date:
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Introduction: Enzymes are defined as proteins that serve as a catalyst to change the speed of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction (Campbell and Reese 2005). A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up the change in a reaction such as lactose into galactose and glucose. Lactase is an enzyme that converts lactose, which is a sugar found in cows and human milk (Thomas et al. 2008). Enzymes have many properties, characteristics, and jobs. One of the jobs that enzymes do is that they lower the Ea (activation energy) barrier. First, higher temperatures in reactions kill cells and denature proteins. Second, heat in the reactions speeds up every reaction, not just the necessary reactions. Therefore, an alternative for organisms is created called catalysis. To lower the Ea barrier, an enzyme must catalyze the reaction, which in turn enables the reactant molecules to absorb enough energy to reach the transition state even at lower or medium temperatures. Enzymes cannot change the ( G) for the reactions that cannot make an exergonic from an endergonic reaction. Enzymes can only decreases the rate of the reaction that will eventually happen later on. However, the enzyme makes it possible for the function to create a dynamic metabolism. Since enzymes are very selective of which reactions they will effect, it depends on when the chemical processes will happen at a certain time (Campbell and Reese 2005). An enzymes substrate is the reactant an enzyme acts upon. In addition, when an enzyme binds to two or more substrates it yields an enzyme substrate complex. Every enzyme has an active site, which is a region on the enzyme for the substrate to bind to the enzyme, which then turns into a complex enzyme-substrate. By signing here, I guarantee that I am the sole author of this Laboratory Report. Name: Date:
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The active sites are created by the very few amino acids that the enzyme can produce and hold. The rest of the protein molecules in the enzyme create a framework or architecture that will configure the active site. The enzyme specificity is formed by the compatibility for the active site so that the substrate can fit into the active site. As the active site and the substrate bind together, the chemical groups and the proteins amino acids cause the enzyme to change its own shape to configure better for the substrate and the active site will fit tighter around the substrate. That little change of shape for the substrate to fit better is called an induced fit. An example of that would be like clasping
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course BSC 2010c taught by Professor Janewaterman,pamelathomas during the Spring '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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Bio. Laboratory Report - Enzymes in the Human World Matthew...

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