comm203 Review Exam 1-Lecture and reading

comm203 Review Exam 1-Lecture and reading - 1 Lecture...

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Lecture Content Exam 1 Lecture: Defining Mass Communication and Media Effects 1. Six Stages of Mass Communication (Defleur/Dennis 1994) a. Professional communicators decide to create a [media] message i. Gather, edit, design for mass distribution b. Messages have to be coded (formulated or produced) i. Create, edit, design, recreate for mass distribution c. Messages are transmitted i. Rapidly, instantaneously ii. Scheduled, continuous iii. Medium- object/device used for communicating message by moving physical info over distance or preserving it through time. d. Audience is large and diverse e. Messages are decoded/interpreted i. The how is mediator of media effects ii. VARIATION! f. Audience is influenced by message i. Can be trivial (wanting something) or profound (vote) g. MASS COMMINUCATION IS… “a process in which professional communicators use the media to disseminate messages widely, rapidly, and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audiences to influence them in a variety of ways.” 2. Intended Effects (5) a. Deliberate attempt on the part of the communicator to influence the recipient in some way b. 5 Major Types i. Advertisement ii. Political Campaign iii. Impact of PSAs iv. Impact of Campaigns to Change Lifestyles v. Impact of Campaigns on Ideology and Lifestyles 3. Unintended Effects (4) a. McGuire 1985: “designed for purposes other than to exert social influence, usually to entertain, and may result in negative outcome.” b. Impact of TV Violence i. Concern: leads to aggression ii. Fear and Desensitization (more important than aggression) c. Impact of Sexually Explicit Content i. Concern: influence on attitudes and beliefs about rape ii. Fades the line on what is sex, sex and violence, pornography d. Impact of Under-representation i. Who don’t we see in the mass media? 1. Asian, Latino, Native American, Black, Obese, Senior 1
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Citizen, Physically/Mentally Challenged 2. If they are represented, is it fair? ii. Concern: heavy viewers get skewed view of the world e. Impact of Misrepresentation i. Concern: individuals may develop negative attitudes toward stereotyped groups. 4. Flashbulb Memory a. Cognitive mechanism b. Personal/historical event of relevance triggers a now print function in your mind. Info about environment when something takes place Lecture: Patterns of Media Use 5. Four Approaches to Measuring Exposure a. Self-Report i. A report an individual gives, like a survey ii. Strengths: quick and easy iii. Weaknesses: faulty memory, can be biased in what we attend to, sometimes interviewer doesn’t ask in standard, constant ways 1. Kids under age 8 are a) perceptually dependent, so things that are visual attract attention AND b) they can’t see the difference between reality and fantasy 2. Adults look at catastrophic events; we are fooled by stimuli that is distinct, novel, or salient in some way b. Diary Method i. Give diary to figure out how much time spent doing something.
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