Class3 - Class #3 Discovery of the Microbial World:...

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Unformatted text preview: Class #3 Discovery of the Microbial World: Evolution of a Scientific Discipline Who were the contributors? What were their contributions? Discovery of the Microbial World Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 1723) Discovered the microbial world April 24, 1676, in Delft, The Netherlands Discovery of the Microbial World Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 1723) Discovered the microbial world (NOT the microscope!) April 24, 1676 Delft, The Netherlands Discovery of the Microbial World Antony van Leeuwenhoek sample lens Discovery of the Microbial World Antony van Leeuwenhoek Dutch merchant Discovered the microbial world using simple microscopes Fellow of the Royal Society of London Recorded his observations of microbes (and other things) in letters to the Royal Society (1674-1723), published in Proceedings of the Royal Society Discovery of the Microbial World Antony van Leeuwenhoek Clifford Dobell. Antony Van Leeuwenhoek and his "little animals". Bale, Sons & Danielsson, 1932. (Reprinted by Dover, 1960) Leeuwenhoek's figures of bacteria from the human mouth (letter 39, 17 Sept. 1683) Understanding the Origin and Nature of Microbial Cells Controversy over Spontaneous Generation (abiogenesis) Rudolf Virchow Theory of biogenesis - all living cells arise from pre-existing cells (Germany; 1858) - no spontaneous creation of cells from nonliving matter - led to the experiments of Pasteur... Understanding the Origin and Nature of Microbial Cells Controversy over Spontaneous Generation (abiogenesis) Louis Pasteur - Memoir on the Organized Bodies which Exist in the Atmosphere, 1861 -Swan-necked flask experiments (1861-4) Understanding the Origin and Nature of Microbial Cells Controversy over Spontaneous Generation (abiogenesis) Louis Pasteur -Swan-necked flask experiments (1861-4) Understanding the Origin and Nature of Microbial Cells Role of Microbes in Transformation of Organic Matter Louis Pasteur -Described life without O2 anaerobic bacteria (studies of butyric fermentation) -Microbiology of lactic acid fermentation -Role of yeast in alcoholic fermentation (1857-1860) Understanding the Nature of Microbial Cells: Endospores John Tyndall (England) Demonstrated existence of a heatresistant form (1877) Developed a method of sterilization by discontinuous heating (tyndallization) Ferdinand Cohn (Germany) Identified endospores microscopically (1876) Understanding Nature of Microbial Cells: Causative Agents of Disease Robert Koch (Germany) Developed methods for studying bacteria in pure culture (1880) Discovered the cause of anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera (18761884) Formulated "Koch's Postulates" for demonstrating that a microorganism causes a disease (1884) Walter Hesse Understanding Nature of Microbial Cells: Causative Agents of Disease Louis Pasteur Vaccines: anthrax (1881) rabies (1885) Discovery of the role of microorganisms in geochemical transformations Sergei Winogradsky (Russian) isolated anaerobic nitrogenfixing bacteria (1890s) Discovery of the role of microorganisms in geochemical transformations Sergei Winogradsky (Russian) isolated anaerobic nitrogenfixing bacteria (1890s) showed that bacteria can grow in completely inorganic environments discovered chemolithotrophs (1889) Chemolithotrophic organisms are autotrophic (fix CO2) use inorganic chemicals as energy source are microbes all of the above Discovery of the role of microorganisms in geochemical transformations Martinus Beijerinck (The Netherlands, 1890s - 1900s) further developed enrichment culture technique isolated aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria developed the concept of a virus (1889) established the Delft School of Microbiology Discovery of the role of microorganisms in geochemical transformations Delft School of Microbiology A. J. Kluyver & C. B. van Niel used enrichment culture technique to expand understanding of the physiological diversity of microbes isolated & studied phototrophs, chemolithotrophs van Niel fl Stanford's marine station, Pacific Grove, California Discovery of the Microbial World: Evolution of a Scientific Discipline Animalcules Upon discovering microbes, this person called them animalcules: Anton van Leeuwenhoek Louis Pasteur Robert Koch Sergei Winogradsky ...
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