Class4 - Class #4: Cell Chemistry The study of microbes...

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Unformatted text preview: Class #4: Cell Chemistry The study of microbes requires an understanding of the molecules that make up cells... ...especially macromolecules. Macromolecules + important structural and functional components of cells What are these Macromolecules? THE Biomass Macromolecules + important structural and functional components of cells ~55% dry weight ~24% dry weight Macromolecules + important structural and functional components of cells What are Molecules? + specific combinations of chemical elements formed when atoms establish chemical bonds by sharing or exchanging electrons in their outer orbital What are Atoms? + basic structural units of matter + consist of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, with negatively charged electrons orbiting nucleus in "shells" or zones around the nucleus Proton Electron Hydrogen Helium Chemical Properties of Elements + mostly determined by the number of electrons in the outermost shell of their atoms. + for biologically important elements, most stable electron number in outer shell is 8; for H it is 2. + Bonds -- when atoms come together to form stable molecules, electrons are shared stable number of electrons in outer shell + Covalent bonds -- electrons ~ equally shared between two atoms Hydrogen Bonds + Covalent bonds -- electrons ~ equally shared between two atoms Chemical Properties of Elements Bonds + Covalent bonds -- electrons ~ equally shared between two atoms + Ionic bonds -- electrons not equally shared between two atoms resulting in charged chemical species. e.g., Na+Cl+ Ionic bonds are important in macromolecules. e.g., binding of Mg2+ to PO43- Chemical Properties of Elements Bonds Noncovalent interactions: + Hydrogen bonds -- form between H atoms and electronegative elements, e.g., O or N -- relatively weak bonds -- may be numerous & greatly affect the overall stability of molecules Chemical Properties of Elements Bonds Noncovalent interactions: + Hydrogen bonds -- form between H atoms and electronegative elements, e.g., O or N -- relatively weak bonds -- may be numerous & greatly affect the overall stability of molecules Chemical Properties of Elements Bonds Noncovalent interactions: + Hydrogen bonds -- form between H atoms and electronegative elements, e.g., O or N -- relatively weak bonds -- may be numerous & greatly affect the overall stability of molecules + Van der Waals forces -- non-specific attractive forces at atomic distances of 3-4 Chemical Properties of Elements Functional Groups - Organic Molecules Functional Groups - Organic Molecules What is this: an ether nucleotide an amino acid Morse Code H CARBOHYDRATES What are carbohydrates (aka, sugars)? polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones CARBOHYDRATES What are carbohydrates (aka, sugars)? polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones CARBOHYDRATES Sugar Derivatives N-acetylglucosamine (in peptidoglycan) CARBOHYDRATES Mutarotation in Carbohydrates POLYSACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES What are these: carbohydrates components of nucleotides sugars all of the above NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers of Nucleotides NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers of Nucleotides ATP NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers of Nucleotides Linked by phosphodiester bonds Double Helix DNA Structure Specific Base Pairing DNA strands are antiparallel & complementary. DNA Structure DNA Double Helix Model DNA strands are antiparallel & complementary. DNA Visualized using Atomic Force Microscopy ...
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