Lecture 01 - What is the Middle East? 19th century Britain...

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What is the Middle East? – 19 th  century Britain coined these terms o Near East (Turkey, etc) o Middle East (Pakistan, Iraq, etc) o North Africa (Not Egypt [hub of Arab world]) o Southwest Asia (Coined by US State Dept) o Western Asia (Saudi Arabia, etc) The Ottomans o Ottomans: Osmanlis: Tribe in Afghanistan in 1220s Seljuks of Rum (Turkey) o Ghazi or Gazi: Self-styled holy warriors Four G’s: God, Glory, Gold, Girls 1326—Bursa and Orhon: Orhan was their leader Europe and expansion 1402 Ankara: Battle of Ankara Bayezid Ildirim vs. Timur-ileng—Timur-ileng wins, but doesn’t invade the  Ottomans (they’re too weak) 1453 Mehmet II and Constantinople Constantinople becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the name  gradually changes to Istanbul o Selim I (the Grim) Chaldiran 1514—Safavids (Shi’a Muslims) Selim beats Safavids Syria 1516—Mamluks (Protect the holy city) Legitimacy issue Selim drove the Mamluks away and took Egypt Egypt 1517 Red Sea operations—Portuguese o Sulayman the Magnificent (1520-1566) Aka “the Lawgiver” Belgrade 1520 Vienna 1529 Not successful, but it puts Europe on edge Empire reaches territorial height o Ottoman Institutions Devshirme Slaves (8-15 year old boys) o Look through baptismal records Balkans Why Christians? Palace training: Who is smart? Who isn’t? Possible occupations: o Janissary infantry (“new army”) Arm tattoo prevents desertion Sent to Turkish families to learn customs and basics of Islam
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Ocak: Led by Corbaci (cook) Training: Archers, NOT cavalry Identity Limitations Why Janissaries?: Because of sipahi Sipahi Other Turks; horse archers Timar and iqta o Usually not hereditary Their paychecks came from their pillaging/plundering Not always reliable or loyal The sultan doesn’t like peasant plundering, so he assigns each sipahi a timar  (kind of like a fief) Sultan needs janissaries to rely on because the sipahi are greedy and don’t want  to fight o Janissaries serve only the sultan and are not attached to any locality Civil service: (bureaucrats) Can advance to vizier Religious establishment Qadi: Judges who are government-appointed Shaykh al-islam: Head of religion; government-appointed Ulama: Body of religious figures in any town or village Millet system: Produces harmony because it’s a multireligious empire o Devised to reduce friction in the empire Religions governed by their own laws but pay tribute to the  Ottoman Empire and can’t plot against the government Ottoman Empire very religious tolerant
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course HIST 3400 taught by Professor May during the Spring '08 term at N. Georgia.

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Lecture 01 - What is the Middle East? 19th century Britain...

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